Kræklurætur – Corallorhiza

Skrifað um July 3, 2014 · in Flóra · 59 Comments

Gisinn blómklasi á kræklurót. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Gisinn blómklasi á kræklurót. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Ættkvíslin kræklurætur – Corallorhiza Gagnebin – tilheyrir brönugrasaætt (Orchidaceae) og undirættinni Epidendroideae. Þetta eru fjölærar tegundir sem eru án laufgrænu. Jarðstöngull er hnöllóttur og marggreinóttur og líkist kóraldýrum.
Nú eru taldar 14 tegundir til kvíslarinnar, en aðeins ein vex hér á landi, og því er lýsing á henni látin nægja.

Ættkvíslarnafnið Corallorhiza er komið úr grísku, ‘korallion’, kórall og ‘rhiza’, rót. Í raun er það þó jarðstöngullinn, sem er hnöllóttur því að engin er rótin.

Kræklurót – Corallorhiza trifida Châtelain

Plantan hefur nær enga laufgrænu og verður því að lifa í sambýli við svepp, sem útvegar henni lífræna næringu með sníkjum. Þess vegna er jarðstöngullinn afmyndaður, en rætur eru engar. Jarðstöngullinn getur lifað lengi í jörðu vegna sambýlis við sveppi án þess að mynda loftstöngul. Örlitla laufgrænu er þó að finna í aldinveggjum, klasalegg og ytri blómhlífarblöðum. Þessi litla laufgræna hefur mikla þýðingu í sambandi við fræþroskun. Ofanjarðar-stöngullinn er móleitur með brúnum, greipfættum, blöðkulausum blaðslíðrum.

Klasinn er blómfár og gisblóma. Blómin eru gulgræn eða brúnleit. Blómhlífarblöðin eru ydd, vör er heil eða grunnþríflipuð, hvítleit eða gulgræn með rauðar eða fjólulitar dröfnur. Hýðisaldin eru 5-10 mm á lengd og sitja lengi á plöntunni eftir að þau hafa þroskazt og losað fræ.

Vex í mólendi, melum, kjarri, hálfdeigjum og víðar. Er algeng um norðan- og sunnanvert landið en sjaldgæf annars staðar. Blómgast í júní. 3–17 cm á hæð.

Viðurnafnið trifida er komið úr latínu, ‘tres’, þrír og ‘findere’, kljúfa, og merkir þríklofinn og á við þríflipaða vör.

Kræklurót. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Kræklurót. Ljósm. ÁHB.

 

Kræklurót í haustbúningi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Kræklurót í haustbúningi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Samnefni:
Corallorhiza anandae Malhotra & Balodi, C. corallorhiza (L.) H.Karst., C. dentata Host, C. ericetorum Drejer, C. halleri Rich., C. innata R.Br., C. intacta Cham. & Schltdl., C. integra Châtel., C. jacquemontii Decne., C. nemoralis Sw. ex Nyman, C. neottia Scop., C. occidentalis Bach.Pyl., C. verna Nutt., C. virescens Drejer, C. wyomingensis Hellm. & K.Hellm., Cymbidium corallorhiza (L.) Sw., Epidendrum corallorhizon (L.) Poir., Epipactis corallorhiza (L.) Crantz, Helleborine corallorhiza (L.) F.W.Schmidt, Neottia corallorhiza (L.) Kuntze, Ophrys corallorhiza L.

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: coralroot orchid, early coral-root, northern coral-root
Danska: Koralrod
Norska: korallrot
Sænska: korallrot
Finnska: harajuuri
Þýzka: Korallenwurz
Franska: racine de corail

ÁHB / 3. júlí 2014

P.s. Höfundur hlaut styrk frá Hagþenki 2014 til ritstarfa.

 

Leitarorð:

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