Þrílaufungur – Gymnocarpium dryopteris

Skrifað um April 13, 2013 · in Flóra · 84 Comments

Myndin sýnir gróhirzlur á neðra borði á þrílaufungi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Myndin sýnir gróhirzlur á neðra borði á þrílaufungi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Þrílaufungar – Gymnocarpium Newman

Liðfætluætt (Woodsiaceae). Ættkvíslin er fremur lítil með aðeins níu tegundir. Þrílaufungar eru taldir fremur frumstæðir og standa nærri tófugrösum (Cystopteris) og hafa á stundum myndað sérstaka ætt, tófugrasaætt (Cystopteridaceae), ásamt þeim og þriðju ættkvíslinni, Acystopteris, með samtals um 30 tegundir.

Ættkvíslarnafnið er dregið af gríska orðinu gymnos, nakinn og karpos, ávöxtur; það er komið til af því, að gróhula er engin.

Þrílaufungur – Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newman

Jarðstöngull láréttur, svartur og glansandi. Öll blöð eins. Stilkur tvisvar til þrisvar sinnum lengri en blaðka; jafnan hárlaus eða með fá hár; gagnsær, stökkur, svartur neðst og með ljósbrúnt hreistur. Blaðka er skakktíglótt, hárlaus og samsett af þremur stilklöngum, tví- til þrífjöðruðum blöðkuhlutum, gulgræn á lit. Neðstu blaðflipapör á hverjum hluta langlengst. Bleðlar fjaðurskiptir eða fjaðraðir. Gróblettir við jaðra, kringlóttir, renna saman við þroskun. Gróhula engin.

Þurrkað eintak af þrílaufungi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Þurrkað eintak af þrílaufungi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Vex í blómlendi, kjarri og gjám. Algengur eða víða um land allt, nema á S og í miðhálendinu. 15-40 cm á hæð.

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: Common Oak Fern, Western Oak Fern
Danska: Tredelt Egebregne
Sænska: Ekbräken
Norska: Fugletelg
Finnska: Metsäimarre
Þýzka: Eichenfarn
Franska: Gymnocarpe Fougère-du-chêne, Polypode du-chêne

ÁHB / 13. apríl 2013



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