Blóm á grösum

Skrifað um March 18, 2013 · in Almennt · 124 Comments

Ef til vill er puntur komið af punt, sem merkir skraut; það er þó óvíst. Myndin sýnir reyrgresi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

1. mynd. Ef til vill er puntur komið af punt, sem merkir skraut; það er þó óvíst. Myndin sýnir reyrgresi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

ÞAÐ ER eilítið undarlegt, þegar menn sjá grös komin í blóma, koma orðin hirðuleysi og seinlæti fyrst upp í hugann. Þessu er öfugt farið við öll blóm önnur, þar sem menn kætast, þegar þeir sjá fyrstu krókusa á vorin og vetrarblóm lítur dagsins ljós. Þá eru sumir, sem trúa því alls ekki, að blóm séu á grösum.

Satt er það raunar, að blóm grasa eru bæði lítil og ósjáleg. Það þarf að hafa gott stækkunargler til þess að skoða þau gaumgæfilega og að auki litla agntöng (pinsettu) og nálar, svo að það sé hægt að plokka þau í sundur.

Blóm á grösum eru um margt frábrugðin öðrum blómum, þó að þau séu öll eins í grundvallaratriðum. Áður hefur verið fjallað um byggingu blóma í tveimur pistlum: Blóm: Bikar og króna, 6.1. 2013 og Blóm: Fræflar og frævur, 17.1. 2013. Þá hefur verið verið sagt frá grundvallargerð könguls, sem telst þó ekki til blóma í skilningi grasafræðinnar (sjá hér).

 

Smáax

Blóm grasa sitja í smáöxum; engin blóm eru við neðstu hlífarblöðin. Teikn. ÁHB.

2. mynd. Blóm grasa sitja í smáöxum; engin blóm eru við neðstu hlífarblöðin. Teikn. ÁHB.

Blómin á grösum eru jafnan í smáöxum (sjá 2. mynd), sem raða sér saman í blómskipun á stráendann. Séu smáöxin legglaus kallast blómskipunin ax (samax), en ef þau eru leggjuð kallast hún puntur (sjá 3. mynd). Á nokkrum tegundum er leggur smáaxins mjög stuttur og það millistig nefnist axpuntur. (Um blómskipun grasa verður fjallað væntanlega undir haust, en hún er miklu merkilegri en virðist í fljótu bragði.)

Myndin sýnir blómskipanir grasa, ax og punt. Teikn. Eggert Pétursson.

3. mynd. Myndin sýnir blómskipanir grasa, ax og punt. Teikn. Eggert Pétursson.

Í hverju samaxi er eitt eða fleiri blóm. Á 4. mynd er sýnt smáax með þrjú blóm. Fyrst er þess að geta, að öll hlífarblöð í smáaxi kallast agnir. Tvær neðstu agnirnar í sérhverju smáaxi nefnast neðri axögn og efri axögn. Engin blóm eru í eða við axagnirnar. Rétt ofan við efri axögn er neðri blómögn, sem er í raun stoðblað blómsins; þar við er forblaðið (háblað), sem nefnist efri blómögn.

 

4. mynd. Myndin sýnir annars vegar smáax með þrjú blóm (efsta blómið er gelt) og hins vegar stækkaða mynd af einu blómi. a: efri axögn, b: neðri axögn, c: neðri blómögn, d: efri blómögn, e: frfill, f: nærögn g: fræva. Teikn. ÁHB

4. mynd. Myndin sýnir annars vegar smáax með þrjú fullþroska blóm (efsta blómið er gelt) og hins vegar stækkaða mynd af einu blómi til hægri. a: efri axögn, b: neðri axögn, c: neðri blómögn, d: efri blómögn, e: fræfill, f: nærögn g: fræva. Teikn. ÁHB

Eins og kunnugt er, hafa grasblóm engin blómhlífarblöð (bikar- og krónublöð). Hins vegar eru rétt ofan við efri blómögn á stundum örlitlar hreisturagnir, sem nefnast næragnir. Um þessar agnir verður nánar fjallað hér á eftir.

 

Fræflar

Innan eða ofan við næragnirnar koma fræflar. Þeir eru oftast þrír að tölu. Frá þeirri reglu eru allnokkrar undantekningar. Bambus hefur til dæmis sex fræfla og ilmreyr (Anthoxanthum odoratum) aðeins tvo.

Frjóhnappurinn situr á frjóþræði og feykist til við minnsta vind. Í hnöppunum myndast frjókorn. Þau þurfa að berast yfir á frævur í öðrum blómum með vindi. Í andrúmsloftinu úir því og grúir af gras-frjókornum um sumarið og einna mest í águst-mánuði. Margir eru haldnir frjókorna-ofnæmi og eru grasfrjó þar mörgum verst.

(Einhvern tíma hef eg heyrt eða lesið, að það láti nærri að það myndist um 20‘000 frjókorn í einum hnappi. Í hverju blómi eru þrír fræflar, sem gerir 60‘000 frjókorn í einu grasblómi. Á vallarsveifgrasi (Poa pratensis) geta verið um það bil 50 smáöx, og hvert með þremur blómum (jafnvel fleiri), gerir samtals 150 blóm og það sinnum 60‘000 eru samtals 9 miljón frjókorn. – Í hverju blómi er aðeins ein fræva með eina eggfrumu, svo að frjókornin eru snöggtum fleiri, enda rjúka þau út í loftið. (Þessi reikningskúnst er án ábyrgðar))

 

Fræva

Í grasblómi er aðeins ein fræva, gerð úr einu fræblaði, með eitt eggleg. Upp af frævu ganga oftast tveir stílar, hvor með sitt fræni. Á finnungi (Nardus stricta) er þó aðeins einn stíll og eitt fræni. Frænin eru sérlega byggð til þess að fanga frjókorn. Það eru þó helzt frjókorn sömu tegundar og af óskyldum (eða lítt skyldum) einstaklingi, sem taka að vaxa þar niður í átt að eggfrumunni. Fari svo, að frjókorn annarrar tegundar nái að frjóvga eggfrumu, vex upp kynblendingur eða bastarður. (Sennilega leynast bastarðar hér, til dæmis á milli títulíngresis og skriðlíngresis, svo að dæmi sé tekið.)

(Meðal sumra grasa eru einkynja blóm, og er maís-grasið gott dæmi þar um. Þau blóm eru ekki um margt annað frábrugðin venjulegum gras-blómum.)

 

Agnir

Axagnirnar, sem lykja um smáaxið, eru með ýmsu móti og eru jafnan gott tegundar-einkenni. Oft eru þær himnurendar, ýmislega yddar og á stundum með títu. Þær geta verið mislangar og ýmist styttri eða lengri en sjálft smáaxið. Meðal sumra tegunda eru axagnir samvaxnar að hluta og oft eru þær með eitt til þrjú rif (taugar) og á stundum kjalaðar. Oftast eru axagnirnar tvær en þess eru þó dæmi, að þær séu fleiri eða færri. Á strandreyr (Phalaris) eru þær til dæmis fjórar, en á finnungi (Nardus stricta) er engin axögn eða hin efri lítt þroskuð.

 

Blómagnirnar, neðri og efri, lykja hins vegar um sjálft blómið. Hin neðri er stoðblað blómsins en hin efri er forblað eða háblað öðru nafni. (Á öllum skýringar-teikningum eru agnirnar sýndar á stilk, en slík er ekki raunin. Agnirnar sitja hvor ofan í annarri og enginn stilkur sjáanlegur.)

Blómagnirnar eru af ýmsum stærðum og gerðum. Efri ögnin er ýmist með tvö rif (taugar) eða tvo kili, aldrei með títu. Neðri blómögn er hins vegar oft með mörg rif og títu, sem getur verið mun lengri en ögnin sjálf og kemur annaðhvort út úr oddinum eða bakinu. Blómögnin getur verið ydd, snubbótt, jafnvel klofin í oddinn eða tennt. Í sumum grasblómum er hárskúfur við neðri ögnina, eins og hjá hálmgresi (Calamagrostis neglecta). Þá eru agnirnar oft fagurlitar, og hæring þeirra skiptir miklu máli við greiningu á grösum til tegunda.

 

Við rætur fræfla og frævu sitja næragnirnar, oftast tvær eða þrjár, geta verið sex að tölu eða vantað alveg, eins og í ilmreyr (Anthoxanthum odoratum) og háliðagrasi (Alopecurus pratensis). Sumir fræðimenn halda fram, að næragnir séu leifar af blómhlífarblöðum.

Næragnirnar gegna mikilvægu hlutverki. Þegar fræflar og fræva eru að fullu þroskuð, þenjast næragnirnar út og spenna blómagnirnar í sundur, svo að umheimurinn blasir við kynhirzlunum báðum í senn. Þegar frjóduftið er horfið út í veður og vind og frænið fangað tilskilin frjókorn, skreppa næragnirnar saman og loka blóminu.

Séu engar næragnir í blóminu, verða fræva og fræflar að brjótast út sjálf. Fyrst brýzt frævan fram, og þegar hún er fullþroskuð birtast fræflarnir.

 

5. mynd. Smáax með þrjú blóm. a: efri axögn, b: neðri axögn, c: neðri blómögn, d: efri blómögn, e: títa. Teikn. ÁHB.

5. mynd. Smáax með þrjú blóm. a: efri axögn, b: neðri axögn, c: neðri blómögn, d: efri blómögn, e: títa. Teikn. ÁHB.

 

Aldin og fræ

Aldin grasa er hnot (hneta), sem er um margt sérstök og kallast korn. Meðal annars er fræskurnið samvaxið fræleginu. Þá lykja blómagnirnar oft um fræið líka og eru meira og minna fastvaxnar við það, svo og hárskúfur, sé honum til að dreifa, samanber bygg (Hordeum vulgar) og hálmgresisfræ. Á hinn bóginn eru rúgur (Secale cereale) og hveiti (Triticum aestivum) dæmi um korntegundir án blómagna.

Ekki mynda allar grastegundir fræ. Í blómum sumra tegunda af ættkvíslunum Festuca (vinglar), Poa (sveifgrös) og Deschampsia (puntur) vaxa út litlir yrtlingar (æxliknappar) og þau eru þá sögð blaðgróin. Fjallað verður um það síðar.

 

Blaðgróin blóm á fjallasveifgrasi (Poa alpina). Ljósm. ÁHB.

Blaðgróin blóm á fjallasveifgrasi (Poa alpina). Ljósm. ÁHB.

 

ÁHB / 18.3. 2013

 

 

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