Ódaunn af mosa

Skrifað um February 5, 2013 · in Mosar · 721 Comments

 

Megn óþefur er af gróhirzlunum. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Megn óþefur er af gróhirzlunum. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Beinadjásn – Tetraplodon mnioides (Hedw.) B. & S.
Mosi þessi vex í þéttum, grænum eða gul-grænum bólstrum, 1-5 (sjaldan 7-8) cm á hæð, oft greinóttur.

Blöð eru 2-5 cm á lengd, egglaga til öfugegglaga eða lensulaga, heilrend, þéttstæð, þurr blöð lítið eitt undin, og ganga fram í langan, bugðóttan odd. Rif nær fram í odd. Rætlingar gul- eða rauðbrúnir, ná oft nokkuð upp eftir stöngli.

Karl- og kvenkynhirzlur eru á sömu plöntu. Yfirleitt er mosi þessi með uppréttar gróhirzlur. Stilkur gulur í fyrstu en verður rauður og síðan dökkrauður, 1-3 cm á lengd. Baukur sívalur, um 1-2 mm langur, í fyrstu grænn en dökknar með aldrinum. Háls jafnan nokkru lengri en gróhylkið og efsti hluti lítið eitt breiðari; mjókkar niður að stilk. Þurrir hálsar með langskorur. Lok keilulaga.

Myndin sýnir blað (t.v.) og gróhirzlu (t.h.). Teikn. ÁHB.

Myndin sýnir blað (t.v.) og gróhirzlu (t.h.). Teikn. ÁHB.


Á gróhirzlu er enginn innri krans. Ytri krans með 16 tennur, rauðgular, úr tveimur plöturöðum að utan en einni að innan; tennur með smáar vörtur beggja megin. Í fyrstu eru tennur saman fjórar og fjórar og er ættkvíslarnafnið af því dregið (Tetraplodon); að lokum eru þær tvær og tvær saman og því í átta pörum. Í rekju sveigjast tennurnar inn yfir opið, en í þurrki liggja þær niður með gróhirzluveggnum (sjá teikningu). Gró eru 10 μm að þvermáli og eru þau klístrug.

Beinadjásn er fjölær tegund, sem vex aðallega á rotnandi beinum, en getur líka þrifizt á öðrum dýraleifum, ælum ránfugla og saur.

Það, sem er einna merkilegast við þessa tegund, er, að hinn áberandi háls gróhirzlunnar gefur frá sér sams konar ýldulykt og stafar frá morknandi lífveruleifum og saurindum. Þessi lykt dregur að skordýr, sem atast þá límugum gróunum. Á þann hátt stuðla skordýr að útbreiðslu tegundarinnar.

Beinadjásn skartar fögrum litum og er auðvelt að þekkja. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Beinadjásn skartar fögrum litum og er auðvelt að þekkja. Ljósm. ÁHB.


Beinadjásn vex fremur strjált víða um land, nema ófundin á Norðausturlandi og Suðurlandi. Til sömu ættkvíslar telst fjalladjásn (T. pallidus I. Hagen), en hún hefur aðeins fundizt á einum stað. Tegundirnar teljast til taðmosaættar (Splachnaceae) ásamt ásamt fjórum öðrum (sjá síðar).

 

Heimildir:

Antherton I, Bonsanquet S, Lawley M 2010. Mosses and Liverworts of Britain and Ireland. A Field Guide. British Bryological Society.
Porley R P, Hodgetts N G 2005. Mosses and Liverworts. Collins New Naturalist Series.
Goffinet B, Shaw A J, Cox C J 2004. Phylogenetic inferences in the dung-moss family Splachnaceae from analyses of CPDNA sequence data and implications for the evolution of entomophyly. American Journal of Botany 91: 748–759.
Hill M O, Preston C D, Smith A J E, eds. 1994. Atlas of the bryophytes of Britain and Ireland. Volume 3. Mosses (Diplolepideae). Colchester: Harley Books
Koponen A. 1990. Entomophily in the Splachnaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 104: 115–127
Bequaert J 1921. On the dispersal by flies of the spores of certain mosses of the family Splachnaceae. The Bryologist 24: 1–4

Aðvörun:

Á þessum stað: http://floraislands.is/mosar.html stendur skírum stöfum orðrétt:

»Eini íslendingurinn sem lagt hefur stund á mosaflóru Íslands af nokkurri alvöru, er Bergþór Jóhannsson.«

Menn eru því beðnir um að trúa því mátulega, sem greint er frá á vefslóð þessari.

ÁHB / 5.2. 2013

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