Þistlar ─ Cirsium

Skrifað um April 8, 2013 · in Flóra · 216 Comments

Þistlar ─ Cirsium Mill.
Þistlar, Cirsium Mill., teljast til körfublómaættar (Asteraceae (Compositae), sjá síðar). Þeir eru ein-, tví- eða fjölærir og geta sumir orðið um 4 m á hæð. Stönglar, einn eða fleiri saman, uppréttir, geta verið vængjaðir og þyrnóttir, greinóttir eða ógreinóttir. Blöð bæði stofnstæð og á stöngli, þyrnótt, tennt til gróftennt eða ein- til þrífjöðruð, græn og hárlaus eða grá og þétthærð, jafnan ekki með kirtilhár.
Blómkörfur disklaga, einstæðar, endastæðar í efstu blaðöxlum eða í klasaleitinni, kolllaga, puntleitum eða hálfsveiplaga blómskipun. Reifarnar í mörgum krönsum, þyrnóttar í endann. Blómbotn flatur eða hvelfdur og með hreisturblöð á milli blóma. Blóm ein- eða tvíkynja, pípulaga, rauðfjólublá eða sjaldan gul eða hvít. Aldin hnotkennt með hárskúf.
Til ættkvíslarinnar teljast um 200 tegundir í Norður-Afríku, Asíu, Evrópu og Norður-Ameríku. Tegundirnar vaxa í margs konar gróðurlendum.
Nafnið Cirsium er dregfið af gríska orðinu kirsos, sem merkir bólgin æð. Seyði af plöntunum var notað til lækninga. Stönglar af flestum tegundum eru vel ætir og nýttir eins og sperglar.

Hér á landi vaxa tvær tegundir, báðar sem slæðingar; hin síðar nefnda er mjög sjaldgæf.

Lykill að tegundum:
1 Karfa jafnan einkynja, um 1 cm á breidd; nokkrar körfur saman; blöð þyrnótt ……. C. arvense
1 Karfa tvíkynja, um 2-4 cm á breidd; körfur einstæðar; án þyrna ……. C. heterophyllum

 

Þistill ─ Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.

Fjölær jurt. Stönglar vaxa upp af kröftugum rótarsprotum, sem mynda þétt net í jörðu. Á þessum rótaröngum myndast kröftugir brumknappar, sem verða að nýjum stönglum, og stuðla þeir að kynlausri fjölgun. Frá þessum rótarskotum ganga aðrar rætur djúpt í jörðu, sem sjá um upptöku næringarefna. Stönglarnir eru uppréttir, greindir eða ógreinóttir, með fáa þyrna, að mestu hárlausir eða skúmhærðir, einkum ofan til. Blöð stilklaus, greipfætt; blaðrendur ganga jafnan niður á stöngul, með þyrna á röndum, geta verið hærð á neðra borði.

Þistill er algengur í ræktuðu eða röskuðu landi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Þistill er algengur í ræktuðu eða röskuðu landi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Körfur á stuttum legg (1,5-2 cm), nokkrar saman á stöngulenda eða efri greinum. Reifar blárauðmengaðar, broddyddar. Blóm eru einkynja, pípukrýnd; karlblóm rauðbláleit og lítið eitt hnöttóttari en kvenblómin, sem eru fjólublá. Karlkörfur eru kúlulaga en kvenkörfur ílangar. Aldin er hnotkennt með hárskúf. Hárskúfurinn slitnar auðveldlega af og því berst fræ yfirleitt ekki nema stutta vegarlengd eða vart lengra en 10-20 metra.

Vex við hús og bæi í öllum landshlutum og myndar oft þéttar breiður. Blómgast í júní. 20-90 cm á hæð.

Viðurnafnið arvense er latína, arvum, akur. Erfitt er að útrýma plöntunni og mjög varasamt að reyna að stinga hana upp, því að við það að slíta rótarsprota og búta þá niður eykst vaxtarkraftur þeirra til að mynda nýja stöngla. Ráðlegt er að slá plöntuna 3 eða 4 sinnum á vaxtartíma, fyrst þegar forðanæring er sem minnst í plöntunni og síðast nokkru áður en fræ þroskast. Svo virðist sem réttast sé að slá hana ekki alveg niður við jörð heldur skilja eftir 10-15 cm háa sprota.
Önnur nöfn á tegundinni eru akurþistill, blóðþistill, þyrnir, þyrnibróðir og þyrniviður.

Samnefni: Serratula arvensis L.

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: creeping thistle, canada thistle, canadian thistle, lettuce from hell thistle, california thistle, corn thistle, cursed thistle, field thistle, green thistle, hard thistle, perennial thistle, prickly thistle, small-flowered thistle og way thistle.
Danska: Ager-Tidsel
Norska: åkertistel
Sænska: åkertistel
Finnska: pelto-ohdake
Þýzka: Acker-Kratzdistel
Franska: cirse des champs

 

Þurrkað eintak af þistli. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Þurrkað eintak af þistli. Ljósm. ÁHB.


Purpuraþistill ─ Cirsium helenioides (L.) Hill
Purpuraþistill er nærri þyrnalaus, uppréttur, fjölær með rótaranga, oftast með eina körfu; ekkert eða lítið greinóttur. Efri blöð eru tungulaga, heilrend eða bugsepótt með stuttar nályddar tennur, en hin neðri heilrend; neðra borð blaða lóhært og nærri með silfurgljáa, efra borð grænt og hárlaust.
Körfureifar skaraðar, þyrnalausar. Blómkörfur eru stórar og eru endastæðar eða fáar í hóp efst á stöngli. Blóm eru rauðfjólublá, sjaldan hvít.

Vex á fáum stöðum, sjaldgæfur. Blómgast í ágúst. 20-60 cm á hæð.

Viðurnafnið helenioides táknar, að plantan líkist Helenium, það er Inula helenium, iðunnarsunnu.
B
löð jurtarinnar eru höfð til litunar og gefa ásamt birkiblöðum mjög fallegan gulan lit.

Sjá myndir af tegundinni hér.

Samnefni: Cirsium heterophyllum (L.) Hill

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: melancholy thistle
Danska: Forskelligbladet Tidsel
Norska: kvitbladtistel
Sænska: brudborste, borsttistel
Finnska: huopaohdake
Þýzka: Verschiedenblättrige Kratzdistel
Franska: mélancolie, chardon

ÁHB / 8. apríl 2013

 

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