Krækilyng ─ Empetrum

Skrifað um August 17, 2012 · in Flóra · 585 Comments

Krækiber

Krækiber

Orðið empetrum er komið úr grísku; en-, í, á og petra, steinn, klettur; það merkir því vex á steini.

Fyrrum var ættkvíslin Empetrum talin til krækilyngsættar (Empetraceae) ásamt tveimur ættkvíslum öðrum: Ceratiola og Corema. Nýlegar rannsóknir leiddu í ljós, að réttast er að telja þær til lyngættar (Ericaceae) og til undirættarinnar Ericoideae, þar sem þær mynda afmarkaðan hóp vindfrævaðra tegunda.

Tegundir ættkvíslar eru lágir, sígrænir runnar eða smárunnar; greinar eru jarðlægar eða uppréttar. Blöð eru barrlík, stakstæð en virðast oft kransstæð. Blóm eru lítil í blaðöxlum, einkynja eða tvíkynja, regluleg, undirsætin, þrídeild. Blómhlífarblöð óásjáleg, 3 bikarblöð, 3 krónublöð. Þrír rauðleitir fræflar, frjóhnappar án horna. 6-9 blaða fræva. Steinaldin, svart, safaríkt, með fimm til tíu steina, sem hver og einn inniheldur eitt fræ. Vindfrævun.

Mjög er á reiki hve margar tegundir teljast til ættkvíslarinnar, allt frá þremur til nærri tuttugu. Það fer eftir því hve þröngt tegundar-hugtakið er skilgreint. Hér verða nefndar:
Empetrum asiaticum Nakai ex H. Itô
Empetrum eamesii Fernald & Wiegand
Empetrum rubrum Vahl ex Willd.
Empetrum nigrum L.
Empetrum hermaphroditum Hagerup

Aðeins hinar tvær síðast nefndu verða hér til umræðu.

Sumir telja, að hér á landi vaxi tvær tegundir, en aðrir líta svo á, að um undirtegund sé að ræða. Hér er hallazt að því, að tegundirnar séu tvær.

Lykill að tegundum:
1. Blóm einkynja. Aldin án fræfla. Stöngull oft rótskeytur …….. krækilyng (E. nigrum)
1. Blóm tvíkynja. Aldin með fræflum við grunninn. Stöngull ekki rótskeytur ………… ……………………………………………………………………………. krummalyng (E. hermaphroditum)
KrækilyngEmpetrum nigrum L
Jarðlægur smárunni með skriðular eða uppsveigðar, rauðbrúnar, trékenndar greinar. Blöð eru aflöng til striklaga, nærri stilklaus og þéttstæð fremst á sprotum. Rendur blaðsins eru sveigðar aftur á bak, og þar sem þær mætast, lítur bilið á milli þeirra út sem hvít miðrák. Blaðið er því holt eins og rör; þar geymist raki, svo að plantan þolir mikla sólgeislun, hörkufrost og vindasama veðráttu jafnt sumar sem vetur. Þegar blöðin falla af og rotna, gefa þau frá sér eiturefni, sem hamlar vexti annarra tegunda. Þannig hefur það oft betur í samkeppni við aðrar tegundir og nær að breiða úr sér.

Blóm á krummalyngi. Hvíta rákin á neðra borði blaða er greinileg.

Blóm á krummalyngi. Hvíta rákin á neðra borði blaða er greinileg.

Um blómin lykja kringlótt, rauð háblöð. 3 bikarblöð eru íhvolf og móleit, 3 krónublöð hárauð til dökkrauð, um 2 mm á lengd. Blóm eru einkynja (sjaldan tvíkynja) og eru þá hvort á sínum einstaklingi. Þrír langir fræflar (5-7 mm), rósrauðir í fyrstu en verða smám saman dökkblárauðir. Ein 6-9 blaða fræva með stuttan stíl og dumbrautt fræni. Aldin er steinaldin, berkennt, svart (sbr. nigrum; latína niger, svartur), gljáandi, 4-9 mm að þvermáli. Litningatala: 2n=26.
Krækilyng vex í alls konar mólendi. Algengt um land allt. Blómgast snemma vors, oft viku eða hálfum mánuði á eftir vetrarblómi (Saxifraga oppositifolia) í apríl eða maí. Blóm eru lítil og því taka menn almennt ekki eftir þeim. Getur orðið á annan metra á lengd.
Á erlendum málum heitir krækilyng:

Sænska: kråkbär
Norska: Krekling
Danska: Revling
Finnska: Etelänvariksenmarja-
Enska: Crowberry
Þýzka: Schwarzes Krähenbeere
Franska: Camarine noire

 

Krummalyng─ Empetrum hermaphroditum Hagerup

Mjög líkt undanfarandi tegund. Helzta einkennið er tvíkynja blóm (lat. hermaphroditum), sem þó er ekki algilt.
Að auki eru blöðin fagurgrænni og breiðari en á krækilyngi og sporbaugótt (ekki striklaga). Greinar eru grófari og ekki rótskeytar. Steinaldinið er ívið stærra og fræflarnir hanga oft við botn þess. Litningatala: 2n=52.

Á erlendum málum heitir krummalyng:
Sænska: nordkråkbär
Norska: Fjellkrekling
Danska: Fjeld-revling
Finnska: Pohjanvariksenmarja
Enska: Crowberry
Þýzka: Zwittrige Krähenbeere
Franska: Camarine hermaphrodite
Fræflar loða við berið.

Fræflar loða við berið á krummalyngi.Almennt er ekki gerður greinamunur á þessum tveimur tegundum. Þá eru fræðimenn ekki á eitt sáttir um, hvort þetta séu tvær aðskildar tegundir. Sumir telja krummalyng undirtegund af krækilyngi (E. nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum (Hagerup) Böcher). Aðrir vilja aðgreina tegundirnar. Málið hefur ekki enn verið til lykta leitt. Krummalyngið er mun algengara en krækilyng. Fari svo, að það verði talin fullgild tegund, mun krækilyngs-nafnið flytjast yfir á það, því að það er óhæfa að ætla sér að ganga að nafninu krækilyng dauðu.

Krummalyng

Krummalyng

Berin eru etin og talin kælandi og lítið eitt herpandi. Þau eru oft höfð fersk út á skyr eða hræring; þá eru þau höfð í súpur eða grauta. Mauk er búið til úr berjum og saft. Berin þykja góð við þorsta og slá á hita, einkum hjá börnum. Seyði af berjum er gott við hósta og lífsýki.
Láta má lög af berjum gerja og sjóða lítið eitt af horblöðku (Menyanthes trifoliata) með.
Löngum hefur verið bruggað vín af krækiberjum. Eftirfarandi frásögn eru úr sögu Páls biskups Jónssonar:

Kafli úr sögu Páls biskups.

Kafli úr sögu Páls biskups.

Til eru nokkrar uppskriftir að krækiberjavíni (sjá til dæmis http://gardurinn.is/default.asp?Sid_Id=28897&tId=2

Hvít krækiber hafa fundizt á fáeinum stöðum og eru talin sérstakt tilbrigði (forma leucocarpum A. & M.).

Krækilyng (að meðtöldu krummalyngi) hefur líka verið nefnt hrafnalyng, krákuberjalyng og lúsalyng. Stór og íbjúg ber eru kölluð flöskuber eða tunnuber.

Lítið hefur verið um krækiber, þar sem höfundur þessa pistils hefur leitað í sumar, en það er einkum á Norð-Austurlandi. Á hinn bóginn er mikið um bláber og aðalbláber. Skýring á því er látin bíða betri tíma. Fróðlegt væri að frétta af sprettu krækiberja annars staðar á landinu.

ÁHB/17.8.12

 

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