Jólastjarna ─ Euphorbia pulcherrima

Skrifað um November 26, 2012 · in Flóra · 467 Comments

Jólastjarna er vinsæl á jólahátíðinni. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Jólastjarna er vinsæl á jólahátíðinni. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Jólastjarna ─ Euphorbia pulcherrima

Mjólkurjurtaættin (Euphorbiaceae) er meðal stærstu ætta háplantna; flestar tegundir vaxa í hitabelti og heittempruðum beltum jarðar. Til ættarinnar teljast um 7500 tegundir, sem skiptast á um 290 ættkvíslir. Ættinni er skipt í tvær undirættir: Phyllanthoideae og Euphorbioideae. Hinni síðari undirætt er þá skipt í eina átta flokka og er mjólkurjurta-flokkurinn einna stærstur. Innan hans er ættkvíslin mylkjur (Euphorbia) stærst með um 2100 tegundum, sem eru frá einærum smájurtum til fjölærra runna, trjáa eða safastöngulplantna, sem líkjast kaktusum. Kaktuslíkar safaplöntur eru tilkomumestar á þurrkasvæðum í Afríku. Í flestum þeirra er mjólkurhvítur safi, sem er lítið eitt eitraður, en hefur líka verið notaður til lækninga.

Nafnið á ættkvísinni, Euphorbia, er grískt nafn á runna með mjólkursafa, dregið af euforbos, feitur, vel nærður (euforbia, góð næring); eu, vel og forbe, fóður, fæði. Sums staðar er því haldið fram, að nafnið sé dregið af lækninum Euforbus, sem var uppi í Númidíu á fyrstu öld eftir Krist.

Hér á landi eru mylkjur þó nokkuð þekktar. Allmargar eru ræktaðar inni og í gróðurskálum, fáeinar þrífast í görðum og flestir þekkja jólastjörnu (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch), sem hér verður fjallað um. Hún þykir einkar falleg eins og viðurnafnið, pulcherrima, segir til um.

Hver skálaskúfur lítur út eins og eitt blóm. Hér sitja margir saman í hálfskúf. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Hver skálaskúfur lítur út eins og eitt blóm. Hér sitja margir saman í hálfskúf. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Jólastjarna er upprunnin í Mexíkó, einkum í suðurhluta landsins, þar sem vetur eru mildir. Í heimkynnum sínum vex hún sem runni og getur náð um fjögurra metra hæð. Hún lifir í skugga og blómgast þá daga, sem næturhúmið er eilítið lengra en dagsbirtan. Jólastjarnan er svo kölluð skammbirtuplanta og þroskar því aðeins blóm, að á hana skíni ljós styttri tíma en 12 stundir á sólarhring. Að öðrum kosti missir hún blöð og visnar upp.

Í hverjum skálaskúf eru nokkur karlblóm og eitt kvenblóm. Teikn. ÁHB.

Í hverjum skálaskúf eru nokkur karlblóm og eitt kvenblóm. Teikn. ÁHB.

Jólastjarnan ber mjög sérstök blóm í sérlegum blómskipunum, sem koma aðeins fyrir innan mylkju-ættkvíslar (Euphorbia) og einnar annarrar (Chamaesyce). Blómskipunina mætti kalla skálaskúf (cyathium) á íslenzku. Í miðju á hverjum skálaskúf situr krónblaðalaust kvenblóm, sem í er ein fræva úr þremur fræblöðum; umhverfis það sitja í bollalaga dæld nakin karlblóm með aðeins einn fræfil í hverju blómi. Þessi blóm eru umlukt skállaga, grænum reifablöðum og mynda skálaskúfinn (cyathium). Á hverjum skálaskúf er gulur kirtill með blómasafa (nektar). Skálaskúfurinn lítur því út eins og eitt blóm, þó að hann sé í raun heil blómskipun. Síðan raða þessar blómskipanir sér í hálfskúfa. ─ Vert er að hafa það í huga, þegar keypt er jólastjarna, að þessar smáu blómskipanir séu vel þroskaðar. Ef þær eru ekki sýnilegar eða farnar að fölna, er næsta víst, að plantan visnar fljótlega og endist ekki lengi.

Það, sem jafnan mesta athygli vekur, eru hárauð blöð jólastjörnunnar. Þetta eru ekki blómblöð, eins og margir halda, heldur háblöð, sem eru eins konar milliblöð á milli laufblaða og blómblaða. Margir hafa notað þessi blöð til þess að lita með. Á hinn bóginn eru til fleiri litbrigði meðal jólastjörnu; til eru bæði hvít og rósrauð háblöð. Önnur blöð eru þunn, jafan 12-20 cm á lengd og ydd. Blaðstilkar eru langir og grannir. Aldin er hýði.

Mörgum er í nöp við jólastjörnu, því að hún er talin eitruð. Í blöðum hennar er reyndar ertandi efni (diterpene ester), sem veldur sviða á húð eða óþægindum í maga, ef neytt er. Efnið er alls ekki eins eitrað og margir halda og það þarf að éta heil ósköp til þess að finna fyrir verkjum. Reiknað hefur verið út, að 20 kg barn þurfi að sporðrenna á milli 500 og 600 laufblöðum til að veikjast alvarlega. Um eiturverkanir plantna og ráð við þeim má lesa hér: Eitraðar og varasamar plöntur.

Það var fyrsti sendiherra Bandaríkjanna í Mexíkó, Joel Roberts Poinsett (1779 – 1851), sem flutti jólastjörnu fyrstur til Bandaríkjanna 1828, nánar til tekið til Kaliforníu. Þar hefur hún verið ræktuð alla tíð síðan hjá Ecke-fjölskyldunni. Þar fundu menn snemma ráð til þess að láta græðlinga kvíslgreinast í toppinn og fengu þannig fram yrki, sem mynduðu marga skúfa á hverri plöntu. Síðar tókst öðrum að fá fram slíka greiningu en engu að síður ræðu þessi fjölskylda yfir um 70% af markaðnum. Þá hafa komið fram á annað hundrað yrki af þessari tegund einni.

Skömmu síðar barst hún til Evrópu og hefur verið vinsælasta blóm jólanna um alllanga hríð. Talið er, að um 120 milljónir plantna seljist um hver jól í allri Evrópu, þar af um 10 milljónir plantna í Svíþjóð og um 100‘000 hér á landi.

Fyrst þegar jólastjarna (á stundum nefnd jólarós) kom til Evrópu var hún vinsæl sem afskorið blóm. Þá er nauðsynlegt að brenna fyrir legginn, svo að mjólkursafinn renni ekki út eða dýfa honum í sjóðandi vatn. Nú er hún mest ræktuð í pottum. Plantan er mjög viðkvæm fyrir kulda og dragsúgi og þolir ekki lægri hita en 15°C án þess að blöð falli af. Bezt er, að hún standi í góðu ljósi og halda skal moldinni rakri á meðan á blómgun stendur. Þegar rauðu háblöðin falla af hefst dvalatími plöntunnar. Eftir það er nægilegt að vökva vikulega þangað til hún fer að taka við sér að nýju og hún má standa á svölum stað. Síðan er gott að umpotta henni og skera niður. Síðan þarf að byrja að vökva hana reglulega, gefa áburð og sjá svo um, að hún fái órofa myrkur í um 14 klukkustundir á sólarhring frá því í september í um það bil átta vikur frá klukkan 5 síðdegis til 7 um morgun.

Eins og fyrr segir, er jólastjarna upprunnin í Mexíkó, í landi Aseteka. Í máli þeirra, nahúatl, var plantan nefnd Cuitlaxochitl, en cuitlatl er leifar eða jarðvegur, xochitl er blóm. Í Mexíkó kallast plantan „La Flor de la Nochebuena“, blóm hinnar heilögu nætur. Í Chile og Perú er hún kölluð „Crown of the Andes“, höfuðdjásn Andesfjalla en á Spáni „Flor de Pascua“, páskablómið. Í Bandaríkjunum gengur hún undir nafninu „Poinsettia“, til heiðurs þeim, sem flutti hana þangað, en einnig „lobster flower“ (humarblóm) og „flame-leaf flower“ (logablaðablóm) vegna rauðu háblaðanna. Á Norðurlöndum heitir jólastjarna joulutähti á finnsku, julestjerne á dönsku og norsku og julstjärna á sænsku.

Samnefni: Poinsettia pulcherrima (Klotzsch) Graham

ÁHB / 26.11.2012

 

 

 

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