Jafnaætt – Lycopodiaceae

Skrifað um July 22, 2012 · in Flóra · 112 Comments

 

Lycopsida – Jafnar

1. Vatnajurt. Enginn blaðbær ofanjarðarstöngull ……………. Álftalauksætt (Isoëtaceae)
1. Þurrlendistegund. Blaðbær ofanjarðarstöngull …………………………………………………. 2
2. Blöð hreisturkennd, heilrend eða lítið tennt. Sígrænir, trénaðir stönglar ………………… …………………………………………………………………. Jafnaætt (Lycopodiaceae) Sjá hér að neðan
2 Blöð þorntennt, Stönglar fíngerðir (líkir mosum) … Mosajafnaætt (Selaginellaceae)

Jafnaætt – Lycopodiaceae

Sígrænir, fjölærir byrkningar (gróplöntur). Stöngull er kvíslgreinóttur, stinnur og trénaður; jafnan með bæði jarðlæga, rótskeyta sprota og upprétta. Jarðlægir sprotar ýmist neðan- eða ofanjarðar. Blöð lítil, gis- eða þéttstæð, stilklaus og ydd. Gróhirzlur kringlóttar eða nýrlaga, einhólfa; í öxlum blaða eða á sérstökum blöðum í ax-líkum sprotum. Öll gró eins. Kynliður lítill, laufgrænulaus og lifir í sambýli við sveppi.

Lykill að ættkvíslum:

1. Stöngull uppréttur, uppsveigður. Gróblöð eins og grólaus blöð, gróhirzlur í blaðöxlum ………… skollafingur (Huperzia)
1. Stöngull jarðlægur eða skriðull. Gróblöð í axlíkri skipan á stöngulenda …………………….. 2

2. Blöð í 8-16 ógreinilegum röðum á stöngli; sprotar 5-12 mm að þvermáli …lyngjafnar (Lycopodium)
2. Blöð í 4 röðum á stöngli; sprotar 2-6 mm að þvermáli ………………… jafnar (Diphasiastrum)

SkollafingurHuperzia Bernh.

Ættkvíslin er nefnd eftir þýskum eðlis- og garðyrkjufræðingi, Johann Peter Huperz (1771-1816). Til ættkvíslar þessarar teljast um 400 tegundir (1-3 hér). Á stundum er henni skipt á tvær kvíslir, Huperzia í þröngri merkingu með um 10-15 tegundir í tempraða beltinu og á heimsskautasvæðinu og síðan allar hinar Phlegmariurus, sem vaxa einkum í hitabeltinu og hinu heittempraða; margar þeirra eru ásætur. Sumir grasafræðingar telja Huperzia til sérstakrar ættar, skollafingursættar (Huperziaceae).

SkollafingurHuperzia selago (L.) Bernh. ex Schrank & Mart.

Stöngull uppréttur eða uppsveigður, oft greinóttur. Fjölær, sígræn þófaplanta. Blöð í óreglulegum röðum á stöngli, lensulaga, stilklaus, 5-8 mm á lengd, heilrend, dökkgræn, oft gulleit. Gróbæru blöðin dreifð um stöngul, einkum ofantil, skera sig ekki úr. Gróhirslur í blaðöxlum, nýrlaga. Á víð og dreif á stöngli myndast oft æxliknappar, gerðir úr 6 litlum blöðum. Þeir stuðla að kynlausri dreifingu plöntunnar.

Flestir skipta tegundinni í tvær undirtegundir samkvæmt eftirfarandi greiningarlykli, en skil á milli þeirra eru þó óviss:

1. Stönglar um 15 mm á breidd. Blöð útstæð. Oft án æxliknappa eða þeir eru í einum kransi efst á plöntunni ………………………………………………………………….…………………….. ssp. selago
1. Stönglar um 5 mm á breidd. Blöð aðlæg. Oftast með æxliknappa í einum eða fleiri krönsum …………….… ssp. arctica

Undirtegundin ssp. arctica (Grossh. ex Tolm. ) Á. Löve et D. Löve er mun algengari en ssp. selago. Á stundum er ssp. arctica skipt í tvær sjálfstæðar tegundir samkvæmt eftirfarandi greiningarlykli:

1. Neðri blöð útstæð, efri blöð aðlæg. Efri blöð mjó-þríhyrnd. Yfirleitt má finna nokkrar gróhirzlur… paufafingur (H. appressa).
1. Öll blöð aðlæg, efri blöð egglaga. Oftast aðeins með æxliknappa, en gróhirzlur eru fáséðar …………… skufsafingur (H. arctica).

PaufafingurHuperzia appressa (Bach. Pyl. ex Desv.) Á. & D. Löve Greinar standa ekki þétt saman, grannar; engin skil á milli árssprota. Efstu blöð aðlæg, hin neðri útstæð, þykk, jafnan gulgræn. Yfirleitt með gróhirzlur. Nær alltaf með einn krans af æxliknöppum á yngsta árssprota og einn eða fleiri á eldri sprotum.

SkufsafingurHuperzia arctica (Grossh. ex Tolm.) Sipliv. Þéttar greinar; engin skil á milli árssprota. Öll blöð aðlæg, stutt, þykk, gul- eða brúngræn. Ætíð með æxliknappa, gróhirzlur fáséðar.

5-15 cm á hæð. Vex í gjótum, urðum og klettaskorum. Algengur um land allt nema í Mh.

Eldri nöfn á skollafingri eru vargslappi, tröllafótur, hrossajafni og villiviðargras. Nöfnin paufafingur og skufsafingur eru nýnefni. – Annars staðar á Norðurlöndum var sterkt seyði af plöntunni notað til þess að eyða lúsum, valda fósturláti, örva hægðir og drepa innyflaorma.

Enska: Fir (Northern, Mountain) Clubmoss
Danska: Otteradet Ulvefod
Sænska: Lopplummer
Norska: Lusegras Finnska: Ketunlieko
Þýzka: Tannen-Bärlapp
Franska: Lycopode Sélagine, Huperzie sélagine

Lyngjafnar – Lycopodium L.

Gr. lykos, úlfur; podos, fótur. Fjölærar, sígrænar þófaplöntur. Aðalstöngull jarðlægur og trénaður með gisstæðum blöðum, en upp af honum vaxa sívalar greinar með þéttstæð blöð. Rúmlega 50 tegundir teljast til ættkvíslarinnar; aðeins tvær vaxa hér.

Lykill að tegundum:

1. Ein legglaus gróhirzla á uppréttri grein; blöð ekki með hárodd (eða mjög lítinn) .. lyngjafni (L. annotinum)
1. 1-4 leggjaðar gróhirzlur; blöð með 1,5-4 mm langan, hvítan hárodd …. burstajafni (L. clavatum)

LyngjafniLycopodium annotinum L.

Á aðalstöngli, sem getur verið á annan metra á lengd, eru blöð gisstæð, lítið eitt hliðundin en í röðum. Á uppréttum, oftast ógreindum greinum, 4-20 cm á hæð, eru blöð þéttstæð, alhliða. Blöð útstæð eða aðlæg, strik- eða lensulaga, 3-10 mm á lengd, græn til brúngræn, ydd. Þroskuð blöð enda í stífum oddi, en ung blöð í skammæjum hároddi; blöð lítið eitt tennt eða heilrend. Gróbæru blöðin mynda toppstætt, legglaust ax á greinum frá fyrra ári, mjórri en aðrar greinar, 0,4-4 cm á lengd. Gróblöð eru 2-3,5 mm á lengd, kringlótt eða hjartalaga, stuttydd og með hárodd.

Tegundinni er á stundum skipt í tvær undirtegundir samkvæmt eftirfarandi lykli:

1. Aðalstöngull vex á jarðvegi; breidd greina 10-16 mm. Blöð útstæð eða aftursveigð, tennt …………………….. ssp. annotinum
1. Aðalstöngull vex niðri í feyrulagi; breidd greina 4-10 mm. Blöð aðlæg eða lítið eitt útstæð, heilrend ……… ssp. alpestre

Síðar nefnda undirtegundin, ssp. alpestre (Hartm.) Á. Löve et D. Löve, er mun algengari en hin.

4-20 cm á hæð. Vex innan um lyng og kjarr. Er víða á SV, V, NV, N og A.

Seyði af jöfnum þótti gott við sárum verkjum, uppþembingi, blóðsótt og niðurgangi. Þeir voru og notaðir til þess að lita með og fékkst af þeim gulur litur, einkum ef birkilauf eða lyng var haft með (sjá litunarjafni).

Enska: Stiff Clubmoss, Bristly club-moss, Interrupted Clubmoss
Danska: Islandsk-Ulvefod
Sænska: Revlummer
Norska: Stri kråkefot
Finnska: Riidenlieko
Þýzka: Wald-Bärlapp, Sprossender Bärlapp
Franska: Lycopode interrompu, Lycopode à rameaux annuels, Lycopode à feuilles de genévrier

 

BurstajafniLycopodium clavatum L.

Jarðlægur stöngull með margar uppsveigðar greinar, ýmist ógreindar eða mislangar smágreinar. Striklaga blöð annaðhvort útstæð eða aðlæg, þó einhliða uppsveigð á aðalstöngli, 2,5-5 mm á lengd, græn eða gulgræn, dregin fram í 1,5-4 mm langa, bugðótta hárburst, sem oft fellur af gömlum blöðum; blöð heilrend eða lítið eitt tennt. Gróblöð í axlíkri skipan, oftast 2 saman (geta verið fleiri) á mjóum hreistruðum legg. Gróbæru blöðin um 2,5 mm á lengd, með hárburst, fíntennt.

5-15 cm á hæð. Mjög sjaldgæfur. Fundinn á einum stað í Breiðdal, A. Friðlýstur.

Þar sem burstajafni er mjög sjaldgæfur, hefur hann aldrei verið nýttur hér á landi. Ekki er þó loku fyrir það skotið, að útbreiðsla nú sé leifar af mun víðáttumeiri dreifingu áður fyrri. Gróduft jafna var mikið notað fyrrum. Lyfjatöflur voru húðaðar með því, svo að þær klesstust ekki saman. Sé duftinu kastað á eld myndast leifturljós. Það var því notað í flugelda og til þess að mynda eldglæringar á leiksviði. Þá framkallar það fingraför og reynt hefur verið að nota það sem eldsneyti.

Enska: Running Clubmoss, Stag’s-horn club-moss, Common Clubmoss, Elk-moss, (Running) Ground-pine
Danska: Alm.-Ulvefod
Sænska: Mattlummer
Norska: Mjuk kråkefot
Finnska: Katinlieko
Þýzka: Keulen-Bärlapp, Kolben-Bärlapp
Franska: Lycopode en massue

 

Jafnar – Diphasiastrum Holub

Óekta Diphasium [ættkvísl], -astrum, ófullkomin eftirmynd. Fremur lítil ættkvísl með um 16 tegundir (1 hér). Margir grasafræðingar telja þó þessar tegundir til Lycopodium. Jarðlægir, skriðulir stönglar með uppréttar greinar, sem eru nokkuð flatar. Þófaplöntur. Blöð í fjórum röðum; hliðarblöð eru breiðari en fram- og afturblöð.

LitunarjafniDiphasiastrum alpinum (L.) Holub

Aðalstöngull er langur (75-80 cm), jarðlægur og með þétta, upprétta, marggreinda, 5-15 cm langa greinaskúfa. Blöð eru dökkgræn og bládöggvuð, lítil (2-4 mm) og heilrend. Þau standa þétt í fjórum röðum á flötum greinum; á stöngi eru blöð gisstæð. Gróblöð eru langydd í axlíkri skipan á endum greina, en plantan er sjaldan gróbær.

5-15 cm á hæð. Vex innan um lyng og hrís á snjóþungum stöðum. Algengur eða allvíða, nema á A og SA; þar er hann sjaldgæfur.

Var fyrrum notaður til litunar, aðallega með öðrum litagjöfum. Hefur að öðru leyti líka verkun og lyngjafni. Þó nokkur örnefni eru kennd til jafna (Jafnafell, Jafnadalur, Jafnaskarð). Ekki er ósennilegt, að þau séu til komin vegna þess, að menn hafi sótt þangað litunarjafna. Athygli vekur, hve þessi örnefni falla saman við skráða útbreiðslu hans. Í Landnámu segir, að Svarfdæla saga hafi gerzt af því, að Klaufi Hafþórsson hjó jafnabelg, sem bræður tveir sóttu í land hans.

Enska: Alpine Clubmoss
Danska: Bjerg-Ulvefod
Sænska: Fjällummer
Norska: Lusegras
Finnska: Tunturilieko
Þýzka: Alpen-Bärlapp
Franska: Lycopode des Alpes, Lycopode alpin

 

Heimildir og ítarefni:

Ingibjörg Sigurðardóttir: Áhrif lýkópódíum alkalóíða úr lyngjafna og skollafingri á angafrumur in vitro (http://hdl.handle.net/1946/4030)
Eyþór Einarsson 1968. Burstajafninn í Breiðdal. Náttúrufræðingurinn 36: 183–195.

Leitarorð:

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