Eitraðar og varasamar plöntur

Skrifað um July 27, 2012 · in Almennt · 90 Comments

Hóffífill

Hóffífill

 

Inngangur

Allar lífverur verða fyrir áreiti í lífi sínu. Þær verða því að geta varið sig eða borið hönd fyrir höfuð sér, eins og oft er sagt. Plönturnar eru ekki undanskildar hér en vitaskuld verða þær að beita svolítið öðrum brögðum en dýrin.

 

Plönturnar framleiða lífræn efni, eins og sykur, fitu og prótín (eggjahvítuefni), sem þær geyma í frumum sínum, og þess vegna er mjög skiljanlegt, að margar lífverur vilji ráðast á þær til þess að ná sér í fæðubita. Lífverur, sem herja á plöntur, eru margar. Af þeim má nefna bakteríur (gerla), sveppi, þráðorma, maura, skordýr (bæði fullvaxin og lirfur), ýmis nagdýr auk fjölmargra svo kallaðra beitardýra.

Margvíslegur búnaður hefur þróast meðal plantna til þess að verjast ásókn annarra lívera. Þorn eða þyrnar eru meðal varnarbúnaðar plantna og eru til af ýmsum stærðum og gerðum. Oftast hafa hár, blöð eða blaðhlutar ummyndast í nálhvassa brodda.

 

Öflugustu varnir plantna felast þó í mörgum efnum og efnasamböndum, sem myndast í þeim. Þessi efni geta valdið miklum skaða og sársauka á öðrum lífverum en þeim, sem þau mynda. Þar er maðurinn ekki óhultur, ef hann fær þessi efni annaðhvort í sig eða á.

Allt frá fyrstu tíð hafa menn gert sér grein fyrir því, að sumar plöntur geta valdið ýmiss konar óskunda. Einnig er það vitað, að fólk er misjafnlega næmt fyrir eituráhrifum plantna. Oft þolir fólk að komast einu sinni í kynni við tiltekna tegund, en síðan hleypur það allt upp, ef það snertir hana öðru sinni.

 

Annars staðar á Norðurlöndum vex sóleyjartegund nokkur, sem kallast betlisóley (Ranunculus sceleratus). Nafnið er komið til af því, að betlarar stunduðu það lengi að maka sig og jafnvel börn sín með plöntunni, en þá komu fram ljót sár og stórar blöðrur á húðinni, sem leit mjög illa út. Þeir gerðu þetta til þess að öðlast meðaumkun betri borgara og auka gjafmildi þeirra sér til handa.

Allnokkrar stofuplöntur svo og ýmsar garð- og yrkiplöntur eru verulega varasamar, eins og lárviðarrós (Neria oleander), gullregn (Laburnum alpinum), venusvagn (Aconitum napellus) og skyldar tegundir; jólastjarna (Euphorbia pulcherrima) er þó ekki eins eitruð og af er látið, þó að hún geti valdið sviða.

 

Náttúrulyf geta verið varasöm

Sumar íslenzkar plöntur eru eitraðar svo og fjölmargar ræktaðar garðblómategundir og stofujurtir. Að líkindum stafar mönnum meiri hætta af því að neyta of stórra skammta af náttúrulyfjum eða blanda þeim óvarlega saman við önnur lyf, heldur en að umgangast plöntur.

 

Doppugullrunni

Doppugullrunni

Í verzlunum eru til sölu náttúrulyf af mörgum tegundum. Ein slík varasöm planta er doppugullrunni (Hypericum perforatum L.), oft nefnd jóhannesarjurt, ævagömul lækningaplanta. Hennar er getið í Ferðabók Ólafs Olaviusar (1780) frá Lónsfirði í Jökulfjörðum. Margir álíta, að hér sé um misskilning eða ranga greiningu að ræða, því að tegundin var óþekkt í gróðurríki Íslands. Hitt er þó miklu sennilegra, að plantan hafi einmitt verið ræktuð þar til nota sem lækningaplanta. En nú vill svo sérkennilega til, að þessi tegund skaut upp kolli austur í Ölfusi fyrir fáum árum og hefur sennilega borizt þangað með erlendri ræktunarmold. Doppugullrunni er einkum notaður við vægu þunglyndi en getur valdið alvarlegum skaða, ef hans er neytt með öðrum lyfjum.

Þurrkuð fræ af skógarvatnsbera eða sporasóley (Aquilegia vulgaris L.) eru sögð góð við mislingum og hlaupabólu, en tegundin er eitruð eins og flestar tegundir aðrar af sóleyjaætt, og ber því að umgangast með varúð. Þessi tegund og margar aðrar henni náskyldar, eru ræktaðar hér í görðum. Í henni eru banvænir glykosíðar tengdir vetnissýaníði (cyanogenic glycosides, CGs), sem hvarfast í blásýru í vatni. Þessi efni er að finna í þúsundum plöntutegunda, aðallega innan ertublóma-, lín-, rósa- og körfublómaættar. Til að mynda má nefna hvítsmára og villilín. Jafnan eru efnin í svo litlum mæli, að mönnum stafar ekki hætta af. Sagt hefur verið, að menn þyrftu að borða 4 kg af eplakjörnum til þess að finna fyrir áhrifum eitursins.

 

 

Íslenzkar villiplöntur

Alvarleg eitrun af völdum íslenzkra plantna er mjög sjaldgæf og hættan er hverfandi, því að eitraðar tegundir eru fáar. Hins vegar eru margir, sem eru þjakaðir af ofnæmi af völdum frjókorna og sumir eru viðkvæmir á hörund og fá exem, ef þeir snerta vissar tegundir. Dýrin kunna að varast þær. Til dæmis sneiða þau hjá brennisóley (Ranunculus acris), sem getur valdið ertingu á húð, magaverkjum og vægum niðurgangi, ef hún er fersk. Þegar búið er að þurrka hana virðist hún skaðlaus, eins og í heyi. Á hinn bóginn er krossfífill (Senecio vulgaris), sem er algengur slæðingur við hús og bæi, jafn eitraður, hvort sem hann er ferskur eða þurr.

 

Í stóra-burkna (Dryopteris filix-mas L.), sem vex í hraunum og urðum hér á landi, er mjög virkt efni gegn innyflaormum. Vandasamt er þó að finna réttan skammt, svo að einungis ormarnir drepist en ekki sjúklingurinn sjálfur.

 

Baldursbrá

Baldursbrá

Af öðrum varhugaverðum tegundum má nefna ljósalyng (Andromeda polifolia), hófsóley (Caltha palustris), baldursbrá (Tripleurospermum maritimum), sýkigras (Tofieldia pusilla), ferlaufasmára (Paris quadrifolia), hóffífil (Tussilago farfara), súrsmæru (Oxalis acetosella), aronsvönd (Erysimum strictum) og tegundir af maríuvandarætt. Þá má geta þess, að túnsúra (Rumex acetosa), hundasúra (Rumex acetosella) og rababari (Rheum x rhabarbarum) innihalda mikið af oxalsýru, sem hefur háskaleg áhrif á starfsemi nýrna, sé þeirra neytt í óhófi. Bent skal á, að blöðkurnar á rabarbara eru stórum hættulegri en leggirnir.

 

Fæstar þessara tegunda valda þó alvarlegum skaða. Það er þó alltaf skynsamlegt að fara varlega og hafa skal í huga, að börn eru miklu viðkvæmari en fullorðið fólk. Sennilega er ljósalyng hættulegasta tegundin. Eitrið er sterkast í blómum, og dauðsföll á meginlandi Evrópu hafa verið rakin til hennar.

 

 

Varúðarreglur

Hér fara á eftir nokkrar reglur, sem gott er að styðjast við, ef vart verður við óþægindi eftir að hafa neytt einhverra plantna.

• Svíði menn lítillega í munni eða slímhúðin bólgnar óverulega, er gott að skola munninn með nokkrum glösum af volgu vatni.

• Komi fram verulegar bólgur og mikill sviði í munni og koki, vanlíðan, magaverkur, uppsölur og niðurgangur eftir að talsvert magn af plöntu hefur verið innbyrt, er gott ráð að gefa sjúklingi inn læknakol, sem fást í öllum lyfjaverslunum án lyfseðils. Kolin draga í sig mörg efni og gera þau meinlítil.

• Fái menn safa úr plöntum í augun nægir oftast að skola þau úr vatni í um fimm mínútur.

• Fái menn safa úr plöntum á húð, svo að undan svíði eða klæi, dugar jafnan að þvo sér með vatni og sápu.

• Komi fram alvarlegri einkenni skal ekki undan vikizt að hafa samband við lækni eða heilsugæslu.

 

 

 

 

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