Nálmosi – Leptobryum pyriforme

Skrifað um January 26, 2013 · in Mosar · 139 Comments

Þéttstæð, útstæð og löng efstu blöð ásamt dreifðum litlum blöðum neðar er gott einkenni á Leptobryum pyriforme. Ljósm. ÁHB

Þéttstæð, útstæð og löng efstu blöð ásamt dreifðum litlum blöðum neðar er gott einkenni á Leptobryum pyriforme. Ljósm. ÁHB

Einn er sá mosi, sem lætur lítið yfir sér, en vex þó mjög víða á rökum, oft lítt grónum stöðum, þar sem hann lendir ekki í samkeppni við aðra mosa, eins og í klettum, sjávarbökkum, áreyrum, skurðbökkum, þúfum, við heitar uppsprettur og hvers konar ruðninga. Þá er hann líka algengur í blómapottum og gróðurhúsum, þar sem hann myndar ljósgrænar eða gulgrænar glansandi breiður, og þar hafa sjálfsagt margir orðið varir við hann. Oft ber hann glansandi bauka, gróhirzlur, á mjóum, 1-4 cm háum stilk. Þetta er nálmosi – Leptobryum pyriforme (Hedw.) Wils.

 

 

Blöð á Leptobryum og gróhirzla. Teikn. ÁHB.

Blöð á Leptobryum og gróhirzla. Teikn. ÁHB.


Mosaplönturnar eru allt að 2 cm á hæð og vaxa stakar, í breiðum eða litlum bólstrum. Neðri blöð eru dreifð og rétt innan við 1 mm á lengd en efstu blöð eru þéttstæð og allt að 5 mm á lengd. Blöð eru lensulaga með breitt rif, sem fyllir út rúman þriðjung við grunn. Frumur í blaði eru striklaga og framarlega er blaðið tvö frumulög á þykkt. Miðjufrumur stórar. Í blaðöxlum eru stutt, rauð eða rauðbrún axlarhár.

Á rætlingum, sem eru rauðir eða brúnir, eru oftast egglaga, fjölfruma æxlikúlur á stuttum legg. Þær geta líka myndast í blaðöxlum. Kúlur þessar stuðla mjög að dreifingu tegundarinnar. Þær eru vart sýnilegar berum augum en við litla stækkun er auðvelt að greina þær.

Tegundin er ýmist ein- eða tvíkynja og gróhirzlur eru algengar. Þær eru perulaga með langan og mjóan háls, sem verður hrukkóttur á þurrum hirzlum. Þær eru í fyrstu grænar eða gulgrænar, síðan gulbrúnar og brúnar og glansa mjög, og standa láréttar út frá stilk. Gró eru um 16 μm að þvermáli, fínvörtótt.

Myndin sýnir rauðleitar æxlikúlurá rætlingum. Mynd. ÁHB.

Myndin sýnir rauðleitar æxlikúlur á rætlingum. Mynd. ÁHB.

Nálmosi líkist ýmsum Bryum tegundum, þó er enginn með jafn glansandi bauka (gróhirzlur) og hann. Að auki eru Bryum spp. með breiðari blöð og fremur stuttar frumur í blöðum. Sé nálmosi ekki með bauka er auðvelt að ruglast á honum og nokkrum tegundum í ættkvíslunum Dicranella og Ditrichum. Öruggasta einkennið við að ákvarða nálmosa er að skoða blöðin og helzt í þverskurði til þess að sjá þykkt rifið og blöðku, sem er tvö frumulög á þykkt. Þá eru rauð axlarhár gott einkenni.

Nálmosi var fyrrum talinn til hnokkmosaættar (Bryaceae), en tilheyrir nú snoppumosaætt (Messiaceae) ásamt ættkvíslunum Amblyodon, Meesia og Paludella. Í ritröðinni Íslenskir mosar eftir Bergþór Jóhannsson (Fjölrit Náttúrufræðistofnunar) er honum lýst undir hnokkmosaætt (hefti n:r 27, 1995, bls. 10) , en í ættarskrá síðasta heftis (n:r 44, 2003) er hann talinn til snoppumosaættar; hvergi í heftunum hef eg fundið frá þessu sagt. Í lýsingu á tegundinni er hvorki sagt frá tvöfaldri þykkt blaðsins né rauðu axlarhárum, sem eru mikilvæg einkenni.

Sjá má margar góðar myndir af Leptobryum pyriforme á vefsíðum þessum:

http://www.bbsfieldguide.org.uk/sites/default/files/pdfs/mosses/Leptobryum_pyriforme.pdf

http://www.wnmu.edu/academic/nspages/gilaflora/leptobryum_pyriforme.html

 

Leptobryum pyriforme: Gróhirzla. Ljósm. ÁHB

Leptobryum pyriforme: Gróhirzla. Ljósm. ÁHB

Aðvörun:

Á þessum stað: http://floraislands.is/mosar.html stendur skírum stöfum orðrétt:

»Eini íslendingurinn sem lagt hefur stund á mosaflóru Íslands af nokkurri alvöru, er Bergþór Jóhannsson.«

Menn eru því beðnir um að trúa því mátulega, sem greint er frá á vefslóð þessari.

 

ÁHB /26.1. 2013

 

Leitarorð:

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