Hjartagrasaætt – Caryophyllaceae

Skrifað um June 4, 2013 · in Flóra · 94 Comments

Holurt (Silene uniflora) ber mörg nöfn, fálkapungur, geldingagras, galtarpungur, pokagras og fálkapungur, svo að nokkur séu nefnd. Í belgvíðum bikarnum eru oft flugur. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Holurt (Silene uniflora) ber mörg nöfn, geldingagras, galtarpungur, pokagras og fálkapungur, svo að nokkur séu nefnd. Í belgvíðum bikarnum eru oft flugur. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Til Caryophyllaceae (hjartagrasaættar) heyra einærar, tvíærar og fjölærar jurtir, en lágvaxin tré, runnar og klifurplöntur eru mjög sjaldséð innan hennar. Stöngull er uppréttur eða jarðlægur, oft með upphlaupin liðamót, jafnan jurtkenndur; sjaldan trékenndur við grunn. Blöð á stilk eða stilklaus, gagnstæð, skinkransstæð, í hvirfingu en sjaldan stakstæð; án axlarblaða eða með; allaga til striklaga, spaðalaga til breið-egglaga eða nærri kringlótt, þykkblaða eða ekki. Blaðrönd jafnan heil.

Blóm regluleg í kvíslskúfum, dúskum, sjaldan einstæð, tvíkynja, sjaldan einkynja, á stilk eða stilklaus. Stoðblöð gagnstæð, blaðlaga, oft lítil, jurt- eða hreisturkennd, á stundum engin. Bikar lausblaða eða samblaða, fjór- eða fimmdeildur; bikarblöð oft föst við aldin; án undirbikars eða með.
Krónublöð 4 eða 5 (á stundum engin), oft með grunna til djúpa skerðingu í broddinn, á stundum með smáhreisturflögur (ginleppa) innan í krónublöðunum rétt í blómgininu. Litur oftast hvítur til rósrauður, sjaldan gulgrænn.
Fræflar 1-10 (oftast þó 4, 5, 8 eða 10), oft í tveimur krönsum, oft margir geldfræflar. Ein fræva með 1-5(-6) stíla og 2-5 fræni, yfirsætin; einrýmt eggleg, sjaldan tvírýmt efst, miðstætt eggsæti með mörg egg.
Aldin hýði, sem opnast að ofan með tönnum eða hneta, sem opnast ekki fyrr en hún hefur losnað frá plöntunni. Fræ 1-150 eða fleiri, brún eða svört, geta líka verið hvít eða gul. Fræ rík af prótínum. Skordýrafrævun.

Til ættarinnar teljast um 90 ættkvíslir með um 3000 tegundir, sem vaxa aðallega í tempraða beltinu nyrðra og í fjalllendi við Miðjarðarhaf. Hérlendis vaxa villtar um 28 tegundir, sem tilheyra 11 ættkvíslum. Þá skjóta fáeinir slæðingar alltaf upp kolli af og til, en all margar tegundir eru ræktaðar í görðum og gróðurhúsum (nellikur)

Í eftirfarandi greiningarlykli eru íslenzkar ættkvíslir feitletraðar en kvíslir ræktaðra plantna og slæðinga ekki.

Greiningarlykill að ættkvíslum innan hjartagrasaættar:

1 Bikar samblaða …………………………………………………. 2
1 Bikar lausblaða eða aðeins samvaxinn neðst ………………………… 10

2 Blóm ein- eða tvíkynja. Stílar 3 eða 5 (enginn í karlblómi) …………. 3
2 Blóm tvíkynja. Stílar 2 …………………………………………. 6)

3 Bikar klofinn í langa flipa …………………….. akurstjarna (Agrostemma githago)
3 Bikar klofinn í stutta flipa ……………………………………………….. 4

4 Hýðið 6- eða 10-tennt. Stílar 3 eða 5 (enginn í karlblómi) ……… hjartagrös (Silene)
4 Hýðið 5-tennt. Stílar 5 ………………………………… 5

5 Krónublöðkur grunnt 2-flipaðar ………………………….. ljósberi (Viscaria alpina)
5 Krónublöðkur djúpt 4-flipaðar ……………………………. munkahettur (Lychnis)

(6 Með utanbikar við rætur bikarblaða ………………………………… 7)
(6 Bikar án utanbikars ……………………………………………… 8 )

7 Bikar himnukenndur ……………………………….. bergnellikur (Petrorhagia)
7 Bikar grænn, jurtkenndur …………………… drottningarblóm, nellikur (Dianthus)

8 Bikar með 5 vængjaða rimla …………………………. kúajurt (Vaccaria hispanica)
8 Bikar án vængjaðra rimla ………………………………………….. 9)

9 Bikar grænn, án himnufalds á milli bikarflipa. Króna með ginleppa … þvottajurtir (Saponaria)
9 Bikar með hvítan himnufald á milli bikarflipa. Króna án ginleppa …. blæjublóm (Gypsophila)

10 Blöð mjög mjó, þráðmjó eða allaga …………………………………… 11
10 Blöð flöt, alls ekki þráðmjó eða allaga ……………………………. 14

11 Stílar 3. 3-tennt hýði …………………………………………….. 12
11 Stílar 4 eða 5. 4- eða 6-tennt hýði …………………………………. 13

12 Axlarblöð himnukennd. Krónublöð oft rauðleit …………. flæðarbúi (Spergularia salina)
12 Engin axlarblöð. Krónublöð hvít, geta þó verið rauleit …………. arfanórur (Minuartia)

13 Axlarblöð himnukennd. Einær. Krónublöð hvít ……………… skurfa (Spergula arvensis)
13 Engin axlarblöð. Fjölær, sjaldan einær. Krónublöð hvít eða engin ………. kræklar (Sagina)

14 Krónublöð skert í broddinn eða eru engin ………………………….. 15
14 Krónublöð heil …………………………………………………… 17

15 Stílar 3 ……………………………………………………………. 16
15 Stílar 4 eða 5 ………………………………………………. fræhyrnur (Cerastium)

16 Krónublöð með grunna skerðingu ………. lækjafræhyrna (Cerastium cerastoides)
16 Krónublöð með djúpa skerðingu, klýfur þau nærri niður í gegn eða að minnsta kosti hálfa leið …………… arfar (Stellaria)

17 Blöð ketkennd. Blóm oft einkynja. Hýði 3-tennt …….. fjöruarfi (Honckenya peploides)
17 Blöð ekki ketkennd. Blóm tvíkynja. Hýði 6-tennt …….. skeggsandi (Arenaria norvegica)

 

Lambagras (Silene acaulis) vex upp af djúpstæðri stólparót, holtarót, og myndar oft hvelfdar þúfur. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Lambagras (Silene acaulis) vex upp af djúpstæðri stólparót, holtarót, og myndar oft hvelfdar þúfur. Ljósm. ÁHB.

ÁHB / 4. júní 2013

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