Hellhnoðraætt – Crassulaceae

Skrifað um July 26, 2014 · in Flóra · 242 Comments

Völvuhnoðri (Hylotelephium maximum, syn. Sedum maximum, S. telephium ssp. maximum) er ræktaður hér nokkuð víða í görðum og hefur aðeins einu sinni fundizt sem slæðingur. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Völvuhnoðri (Hylotelephium maximum, syn. Sedum maximum, S. telephium ssp. maximum) er ræktaður hér nokkuð víða í görðum og hefur aðeins einu sinni fundizt sem slæðingur. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Til helluhnoðraættar – Crassulaceae – teljast ein- eða fjölærar plöntur tvíkímblöðunga með safamiklar greinar og þykk, kjötkennd blöð. Vatn getur safnazt í slík blöð og því þola margar tegundir langan þurrkatíma. Flestar eru jurtkenndar en þó eru til nokkrar trékenndar tegundir, runnar og örfáar vatnaplöntur.

Tegundir ættarinnar vaxa um allan heim, en þær eru þó útbreiddastar á norðurhveli jarðar og einkum í Suður-Afríku, aðallega á fremur köldum og þurrum svæðum. Um 1200-1500 tegundir heyra til ættarinnar innan 33 ættkvísla.

Engar sérlegar nytjaplöntur eru innan ættarinnar en hins vegar fjölmargar stássjurtir, bæði stofu- og garðplöntur hér á landi. Af stofublómum má nefna kóraltopp (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana), kranskolla (Echeveria spp.) og paradísartré (Crassula ovata) og iðunnartré (Aeonium arboreum). Garðplöntur eru mun fleiri; margir hnoðrar (Sedum), hnyðrur (Jovibarba), eins og kúluhnyðra (J. globifera) og ljósahnyðra (J. heuffelii), húslaukar (Sempervivum) og svæflur (Rhodiola).

Tegundir ættarinnar mynda oft mjög þéttstæð blöð í stofnhvirfingu. Stilkur er uppréttur eða jarðlægur. Blöð eru stakstæð eða gagnstæð og heilrend.

Blómskipun er jafnan samsett, kvísl- eða hálfskúfar í sveipum eða klösum. Blóm eru regluleg, undirsætin, ein- eða tvíkynja. Krónublöð eru jafnan 4 eða 5 en geta verið mun fleiri, allt að 12, hvít, gul, rósrauð eða grænleit. Fræflar eru 4, 8-10 eða fjölmargir (oft tvöfalt fleiri en krónublöð). Frævan er úr jafnmörgum fræblöðum og fjöldi krónublaða; fræblöðin eru ósamvaxin og myndar því hvert um sig einrýmda smáfrævu. Aldin samaldin, myndað úr nokkrum belghýðum. Fræ örlítil.

Fimm tegundir teljast til íslenzku flórunnar í þremur ættkvíslum.

Eftirtaldar ættkvíslir eru innan ættarinnar (feitletraðar eru íslenzkar, slæðingar merktir stjörnu (*)):

Adromischus

Aeonium

Aichryson

Cotyledon

Crassula

Diamorpha

Dudleya

Echeveria

Graptopetalum

Hylotelephium*

Hypagophytum

Jovibarba*

Kalanchoe

Lenophyllum

Monanthes

Orostachys

Pachyphytum

Perrierosedum

Prometheum

Pseudosedum

Rhodiola

Rosularia

Sedum

Sempervivum*

Thompsonella (Mexico)

Tillaea (syn. Crassula)

Tylecodon

Umbilicus

Villadia

 

 

Greiningarlykill að íslenzkum ættkvíslum og kvíslum nokkurra slæðinga og garðplantna:

1. Mjög lítil, einær jurt, blöð gagnstæð, sýllaga og hvassydd. Blóm stilklaus, 4-deild, 4 fræflar. Vex á lauga- og hverasvæðum …… vatnsögn (Tillaea aquatica)
1. Blóm á stilk. Fræflar minnst 8 …………….. 2

2. Stofnstæð blöð mynda lauklíkar hvirfingar. Blómstilkur rís upp úr hvirfingu ………. 3
2. Stofnstæð blöð mynda ekki lauklíkar hvirfingar ……………… 4

3. Um 8-16 krónublöð, útbreidd, stjörnulík, rauð til rósrauð (sjaldan gul) ……. húslaukar (Sempervivum)
3. Jafnan 6 eða 7 krónublöð, upprétt, gulhvít eða grængul ………… hnyðrur (Jovibarba)

4. Blóm einkynja, 4-deild. Krónublöð gul ……….. burnirót, svæfla (Rhodiola rosea)
4. Blóm tvíkynja, 5-deild. Krónublöð gul, rauð, blárauð (hvít hjá slæðingum) ……… hnoðrar (Sedum)

 

ÁHB / 26. júlí 2014

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