Blöðrujurtarætt ─ Lentibulariaceae

Skrifað um October 1, 2012 · in Flóra · 525 Comments

 

Veiðiblöðrur eru einkenni margra tegunda innan ættarinnar. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Veiðiblöðrur eru einkenni margra tegunda innan ættarinnar. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Til blöðrujurtarættar teljast fimm ættkvíslir: Pinguicula, (lyfjagrös) Utricularia (blöðrujurtir), Genlisea, Isoloba og Vesiculina. Hinar þrjár síðast töldu eru framandi og koma ekki frekar við sögu.
Plöntur ættarinnar eru votlendis- eða vatnajurtir; fáeinar eru ásætur. Stönglar eru uppréttir, jarðlægir eða á floti. Sumar tegundir eru rótlausar. Blöð eru einföld, stakstæð eða í stofnhvirfingu, eða margskipt með þráðfína flipa. Á efra borði eru kirtilhár, sem seyta slímefnum og enzýmum, sem brjóta niður prótín. Hjá nokkrum ættkvíslum eru smáar veiðiblöðrur. Plönturnar oft nefndar kjötætur, því að lítil dýr leysast upp í vökva, sem þær gefa frá sér, og næringarefnin seytla inn í plönturnar. Blóm eru einstæð eða í fáblóma klösum eða sjaldnar öxum, tvíkynja, undirsætin og óregluleg; bikar samblaða, tví- eða fimm-skiptur. Varakróna fimm-skipt, gul, hvít eða fjólublá með spora. Fræflar 2, fræva ein með einrýmt eggleg og laus-miðstætt eggsæti með marga frævísa. Aldin er hýði (mjög sjaldan hneta).

Nafn ættarinnar, Lentibulariaceae, er dregið af gömlu ættkvíslarnafni, Lentibularia, sem er sennilega komið af lenticula, linsulaga, og vísar til lögunar á veiðiblöðrunum. Það er þó óskýrt, hvernig c hefur breytzt í b.

Lykill að ættkvíslum
1 Votlendistegund, með rót og heil, ljósgulgræn, slímug blöð í stofnhvirfingu. Fjólublátt, toppstætt blóm ………………………………………………… lyfjagrös (Pinguicula)
1 Rótlaus vatnaplanta, marar í kafi; með margskipt blöð; með smáar veiðiblöðrur og þráðfína flipa. Gisstæð, gul og lítil blóm í klasa (blómgast sjaldan) ……… blöðrujurtir (Utricularia)

 

Lyfjagrös ─ Pinguicula L.

Til ættkvíslarinnar teljast um 50 tegundir í öllum heimsálfum nema Ástralíu. Þetta eru fjölærar jurtir, þó að sumar tegundir hegði sér líkt og einæringar. Margar fjölga sér kynlaust með æxlilaukum eða blöðóttum brumknöppum, sem skjóta rótum. Blöð flestra tegunda breiðast út fast við jörð; oft eru þau af tveimur gerðum; þau sem myndast síðar eru jafnan stærri og þola betur að lifa í skugga, þar sem þau eru hálf upprétt. Blöðin eru sérhæfð til að fanga skordýr og önnur smádýr. Á efra borði blaða eru tvenns konar kirtlar, annar á háum stilk en hinn stilklaus.

Slímkirtillinn minnir á hattsvegg. Ljósm. ÁHB

Slímkirtillinn minnir á hattsvepp. Stækkun 400x. Ljósm. ÁHB

Stilkaði kirtillinn lítur út eins og hattsveppur og gefur frá sér slím sem festir dýrin við blöðin. Blöðin fá á sig fitugljáa vegna slímsins og er ættkvíslarheitið af því dregið; á latínu merkir pinguis, feitur. Stilklausi kirtillinn seytir á hinn bóginn frá sér enzýmum, sem brjóta niður meðal annars prótín og sykrur.
Tveggja tegunda hefur verið getið frá Íslandi, en fundur annarrar hefur ekki verið staðfestur (sjá síðar).

Lykill að tegundum
1 Blóm fjólublá til blá (sjaldan hvít). Sporinn beinn, 3-7 mm á lengd, allaga. Blómleggur þéttsettur kirtilhárum ……………………………………. lyfjagras (P. vulgaris)
1 Blóm hvít. Sporinn víður, 2-3 mm á lengd, keilulaga. Blómleggur hárlaus eða með kirtilhár á strjálingi …………………………………………………… fjallalyfjagras (P. alpina)

LyfjagrasPinguicula vulgaris L

Lyfjagras. Ljósm. ÁHB

Lyfjagras. Ljósm. ÁHB

Fjölær votlendisplanta. Blöð (4-7) í stofnhvirfingu, egglaga til aflöng, um 2,5-5,0 cm á lengd og 1,0-2,0 cm á breidd; gefa frá sér slím, með upporpnar raðir, heilrend og gulgræn. Efra borð blaða er þakið smáum kirtlum, sem gefa frá sér seigt og trefjakennt slím við snertingu. Þegar smádýr festast í því seyta aðrir, stilklausir kirtlar, meltienzými, sem vinnur á dýrunum. Á margan hátt er hér um sams konar meltingu að ræða og á sér stað í maga kjötætna. Festist dýrið nærri jaðri blaðsins, rúllast það upp og dýrið færist nær miðju, þar sem styrkur enzýmsins er mestur. Við meltinguna losnar aðallega nitur (köfnunarefni), sem gerir plöntunni kleift að vaxa í nitursnauðum jarðvegi.

Þverskurðarmynd af blaði lyfjagrass. A sýnir stilkaðan slímkirtil; B sýnir stilklausan meltingarkirtil. Teikn. ÁHB

Þverskurðarmynd af blaði lyfjagrass. A sýnir stilkaðan slímkirtil; B sýnir stilklausan meltingarkirtil. Teikn. ÁHB

Blaðlausir, kirtilhærðir blómleggir vaxa upp úr stofnhvirfingunni, oftast einn (sjaldan tveir) frá hverri blaðöxl, 6-17 cm á hæð; lengjast eftir því sem líður á fræþroska.
Blóm endastætt, 1-1,5 cm að þvermáli, blátt til fjólublátt, óreglulegt. Bikar er græn-fjólublár með kirtilhár. Tveir fræflar og ein fræva. Aldinið er egglaga hýði.

Vex í mó- og deiglendi um nær allt land. Blómgast í júní. 6-15 cm á hæð.

Mörgum afbrigðum og tilbrigðum hefur verið lýst og jafnvel gerð að sérstökum tegundum. Eintök með hvítt blóm hafa fundizt fáeinum sinnum (forma albida (Behm.) Neumann). Örnólfur Thorlacius fann hvítt lyfjagras í röku túni á Fremstafelli í Kaldakinn niður undir Djúpá um 1945. Þar uxu tvö eintök stutt frá hvoru öðru.

Smyrsl af urtinni er búið til þannig, að 90 g af smásöxuðum blöðum eru soðin í 120 g af ósöltu smjöri og 60 g af tólgi dágóða stund. Hið þunna er síað frá og það sem eftir verður notað við útbrotum, bólgu, sprungum og gömlum sárum í hörundi. Seyði af blöðum var talið gott til þess að hreinsa höfuð og styrkja hársvörð til varnar skalla. Sums staðar var talið bezt að tína blöð á Jónsmessu og af því eru jóns- og jónsmessugras komin. Vegna stöðu blaða hefur plantan líka verið nefnd krossgras og krosslauf.
Nöfnin hleypisgras og kæsisgras minna á, að það var notað til þess að hleypa mjólk til skyrgerðar. Sumir telja, að það séu örverur á blöðunum, sem valda því að mjólkin hleypur.

Enska: Common Butterwort, Steepgrass, Valentine’s Flower, Yorkshire Sanicle
Danska: Almindelig Vibefedt
Sænska: Tätört, hårgula
Norska: Tettegras
Finnska: Siniyökönlehti
Þýzka: Gewöhnliches Fettkraut
Franska: Grassete commune

FjallalyfjagrasPinguicula alpina L
Plantan er mjög lík undanfarandi tegund. Þetta er lágvaxin urt með blöð niður við jörð (stofnhvirfing). Blöðin eru um 2 cm á lengd, brúngræn og með upporpnar blaðrendur. Efra borð er þakið kirtilfrumum og festast smádýr auðveldlega í slími, sem kirtlarnir gefa frá sér. Blómleggir eru að mestu hárlausir eða með fá og strjál kirtilhár. Krónan er hvít, neðri vör með gula bletti; spori stuttur (2-3 mm á lengd), gulur, beygður og snubbóttur.

Allt er óvíst um þessa tegund. Engin eintök eru til í söfnum; hún er nefnd í tveimur gömlum plöntulistum, hjá Mohr (1786) og Baring-Gould (1863). Áskell Löve (1945) getur þess, að hann hafi séð hana nefnda hjá Steini Emilssyni frá Sjónfríð eða Glámu.

Enska: Alpine Butterwort
Danska: Alpe-Vibefedt
Sænska: Fjälltätört
Norska: Fjelltettegras
Finnska: Valkoyökönlehti
Þýzka: Alpen-Fettkraut
Franska: Grassette des Alpes

Blöðrujurtir ─ Utricularia L.

Ættkvíslarnafnið Utricularia er dregið af latenska orðinu utriculus, sem merkir lítill sekkur eða leðurskjóða. Nafnið er komið af því, að tegundir ættkvíslarinnar hafa blöðrur, sem fanga frumdýr eða lítil vefdýr. Ríflega 200 tegundir teljast til kvíslarinnar og vaxa þær um allan heim nema á Suðurskautslandinu. Fjölskrúðugastar eru þær í Suður-Ameríku.
Um 20% tegundanna lifa í ferskum vötnum en 80% í votlendi. Plönturnar heyra til þeirra fáu vefplantna, sem eru án rótar. Öll er plantan mjög fíngreinótt og blöð gisstæð; yfirborð hennar er því mjög stórt, sem kemur sér vel, þar sem hún tekur öll efni hún þarf í gegnum yfirborðið.

Blörujurtir eru allar mjög fíngreinóttar. Ljósm. ÁHB

Blöðrujurtir eru allar mjög fíngreinóttar. Ljósm. ÁHB

Blöðrurnar eru mjög misstórar, frá 0,2 mm til 1,2 cm og sitja ýmist á blaðflipum eða greinum. Þær eru jafnan hálfmánalaga. Inni í blöðrunum eru kirtilfrumur, sem gefa frá sér niðurbrots-enzým. Op blöðrunnar er lokað og þar inni er undirþrýstingur. Við opið eru fáein, næm hár. Þegar dýr snertir þau, opnast blaðran, og dýrin sogast inn vegna undirþrýstingsins í blöðrunni. Bráðin leysist upp í meltingarvökva og næringarefnin síast inn í plöntuna.
Blóm eru gul á lit, sitja í klasa efst á blaðlausum blómlegg. Fræflar eru tveir og fræva er ein. Aldin er hýði.

Hér á landi vex aðeins ein tegund.

BlöðrujurtUtricularia minor L.
Plantan marar í kafi, oft í miklum flækjum. Stöngull er marggreindur, hárfínn; blöð gisstæð, merggreind með oddmjóa flipa. Veiðiblöðrur á blöðum eða greinum (sjá lýsingu hér að ofan).
Gul blóm á löngum, uppréttum legg, gisstæð. Króna er með stuttan spora. Plantan hefur örsjaldan fundizt í blóma.
Undir haust sekkur plantan til botns. Stönglar, blöðrur og mörg blöð visna en önnur mynda smáa hnykla á stærð við baunir. Þessir hnyklar lifa af veturinn og þola bæði hart frost og þurrk. Undir vor taka þeir að vaxa skjótt og plönturnar fljóta upp.
Lifir í fersku vatni, mógröfum, skurðum, mýrarpollum, vötnum og víðar. Vex á allmörgum stöðum vítt og breytt um land; þó fremur sjaldgæf um norð-austan vert land og á Suðurlandi.

Enska: Lesser Bladderwort
Danska: Liden Blærerod
Sænska: Dvärgbläddra
Norska: Småblærerot
Finnska: Pikkuvesiherne
Þýzka: Kleiner Wasserschlauch
Franska: Petite utriculaire

Þurrkað eintak af blöðrujurt. Ljósm. ÁHB

Þurrkað eintak af blöðrujurt. Ljósm. ÁHB

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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