Barnarætur – Coeloglossum

Skrifað um July 3, 2014 · in Flóra · 91 Comments

Barnarót (Coeloglossum viride). Ljósm. ÁHB.

Barnarót (Coeloglossum viride). Ljósm. ÁHB.

Ættkvíslin barnarætur – Coeloglossum Hartm. – telst til brönugrasaættar (Orchidaceae) og undirættarinnar Orchidoideae. Til kvíslarinnar telst nú aðeins ein tegund, og því er lýsing á henni látin nægja.

Nafnið Coeloglossum er dregið af grísku orðunum ‘koilos’, holur og ‘glossum’, tunga. Það er komið til af því, að spori er holur á tungulaga vör.

Sumir grasafræðingar telja tegundina til ættkvíslar brönugrasa og þá nefnist hún:
Dactylorhiza viridis (L.) R.M.Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W.Chase

Barnarót – Coeloglossum viride (L.) Hartman

Forðarætur handskiptar, rótargreinar hnöllóttar ofan til. Stöngull er með 3 eða 4 blágræn, stakstæð, oddbaugótt eða lensulaga, bogstrengjótt blöð, 5-10 cm á lengd og 2-6 cm breið; grágræn á neðra borði. Blómskipun klasi en líkist þéttu axi. Neðstu stoðblöð lengri en blóm, en hin efri um það bil jafnlöng. Blóm yfirsætin; ytri blómhlíf rauðmóleit, gulgræn eða bláleit (3-6 mm á lengd og 2-3 mm breið); innri blómhlíf þrjú blöð, þar af vita tvö upp en eitt niður og myndar vör (5-10 mm á lengd og 1-4 mm á breidd), sem er þrítennt (miðtönn stytzt). Spori er mjög stuttur (2 mm). Blómhlífarblöð, að vör undanskilinni, mynda hvelfda hjálmhúfu.

Vex í lyngmóum og kjarri, þar sem sólar nýtur. Algeng um land allt. Blómgast í júní–júlí. 10–25 cm á hæð.

Viðurnafnið ‘viride’, grænn.

Víða á meginlandi Evrópu er tegundin í útrýmingarhættu og mun þegar horfin úr Danmörku.

Samnefni:
Chamorchis viridis (L.) Dumort., Coeloglossum bracteatum, C. islandicum (Lindl.) Kom., C. kaschmirianum Schltr., C. nankotaizanense (Masam.) Masam., C. taiwanianum S.S.Ying, C. vaillantii (Ten.) Schur, Entaticus viridis (L.) Gray, Gymnadenia viridis (L.) Rich., Habenaria viridis (L.) R.Br. Herminium nankotaizanense Masam., Himantoglossum viride (L.) Rchb., Orchis viridis (L.) Crantz, O. batrachites Schrank, O. ferruginea (F.W.Schmidt) F.W.Schmidt, O. virens Scop., Peristylus islandicus Lindl., P. montanus Schur, P. viridis (L.) Lindl., Platanthera islandica (Lindl.) Kraenzl., P. nankotaizanensis (Masam.) Masam., P. viridis (L.) Lindl., Satyrium alpinum F.W.Schmidt, S. bracteatum Pers., S. ferrugineum F.W.Schmidt, S. fuscum Huds., S. lingulatum Vill., S. viride L., Sieberia viridis (L.) Spreng.

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: (longbract) frog orchid
Danska: Poselæbe
Norska: grønnkurle
Sænska: grönkulla, grönyxne
Finnska: pussikämmekkä
Þýzka: Grüne Hohlzunge
Franska: orchis grenouille

ÁHB. / 3. júlí 2014

P.s. Höfundur hlaut styrk frá Hagþenki 2014 til ritstarfa.

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