Baráttan við bakteríur

Skrifað um June 19, 2014 · in Almennt · 226 Comments


Fyrir skömmu var sagt frá því í fréttum að loka þurfti um tíma deild á Landspítala vegna skæðrar bakteríu, sem herjaði þar. Þetta er svo kallað
mósa-smit, sem er skammstöfun fyrir Meticilin ónæmur Staphylococcus aureus; það er bakterían S. aureus, sem er ónæm fyrir lyfinu meticilini.

En bakteríur (gerlar) ónæmar fyrir lyfjum eru ekki aðeins á sjúkrastofnunum, heldur er þetta einn mesti vandi, sem þjóðir heims standa frammi fyrir. Áður hefur lítillega verið fjallað um þessar áhyggjur hér á vef (sjá: http://ahb.is/hvad-er-til-rada/).

Fyrir skömmu héldu helztu sérfræðingar heims í gerlafræðum ráðstefnu í Uppsölum í Svíþjóð ásamt fulltrúum lyfjafyrirtækja, stofnana Sameinuðu þjóðanna og þeirra landa, sem verst hafa orðið úti í þessum efnum. Þar réðu menn ráðum sínum um hvað bæri að gera sem allra fyrst, því að þessi vandi er að verða óviðráðanlegur.

Það er mikið sem þarf til til að leysa þetta mál: pólitískan vilja, alþjóðlega samvinnu og meiri fjármuni, svo að fátt eitt sé nefnt. Það er umhugsunarvert, að nær helmingur af öllum sýklalyfjum er notaður við dýraeldi.

Talið er, að um 25 þúsund Evrópubúar deyi á hverju ári vegna ónæmra baktería og mun fleiri annars staðar í veröldinni. Og sífellt koma fram fleiri stofnar baktería, sem þola sýklalyf, sem til eru.

Nú kann að verða breyting hér á. Nýverið var greint frá því í tímaritinu Nature, að brezkir vísindamenn hefðu uppgötvað leið til þess að drepa þessar illviðráðanlegu bakteríur.

Bakteríum má skipta í tvo afmarkaða hópa, sem má aðgreina með sérstakri litunaraðferð, sem er kennd við Danann Hans C. J. Gram (1853-1938): (a) gram jákvæðar og (b) gram neikvæðar bakteríur.

Munurinn á þessum tveimur hópum er einkum sá, að hinar fyrrnefndu hafa um sig einfalt hulstur en hinar síðar nefndu tvöfalt hulstur. Það eru einmitt þær, gram neikvæðar, sem gengið hefur verst að ráða við, eins og saurgerla (Escherichia coli) og salmonellur.

Hin nýja baráttuaðferð felst í því að koma í veg fyrir að ytra hulstrið myndist en það nægir til þess að bakterían nær ekki að lifa. Þetta er talin miklu betri leið heldur en að reyna að drepa bakteríuna sjálfa. Nú þegar hafa lyfjafyrirtæki lagt verulegar fjárhæðir að mörkum til þess að leita lyfja, sem ráðast á hulstrin um bakteríurnar.

Almennt er álitið, að ofnotkun sýklalyfja muni koma mannkyninu í koll innan fárra ár. Rétt er að minna á, að einfaldasta og öflugasta leiðin til þess að koma í veg fyrir hvers konar sýkingar af völdum baktería og veirna, er að þvo sér oft um hendur (sjá: http://ahb.is/umgangspestir-og-handthvottur/).

 

ÁHB / 19. júní 2014

 

Leitarorð:

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