Blóðarfi ─ Polygonum aviculare

Skrifað um January 8, 2013 · in Flóra · 303 Comments

Blóm á blóðarfa. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Blóm á blóðarfa. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Hnútagrös ─ Polygonum

Til ættkvíslarinnar hnútagrasa (Polygonum L.) af súruætt (Polygonaceae) teljast einærar tegundir, með jarðlæga eða upprétta, oft marggreinda, stöngla. Blöð stilkstutt eða stilklaus, sporbaugótt eða öfugegglaga, geta verið mjólensu- eða striklaga og stofnendi blöðku yddur eða ávalur. Axlarslíður brún- eða hvítleit. Blóm eru lítil, tvíkynja, í blaðöxlum eða einstök. Blómhlífarblöð fimm, grænleit með rauðan eða hvítan fald. Fræflar eru fimm til átta. Fræni eru þrjú. Aldin er þríhyrnd hneta.
Polygonum er komið úr grísku, polys, margur; gony, ef. gonatos, hnútur, kné. Nafnið hnútagras er af þessu dregið, en hnúskar myndast á stöngli við liðamót.
Fyrrum töldust allmargar tegundir til þessarar ættkvíslar, en þær hafa verið fluttar í aðrar kvíslir eins og Persicaria og Bistorta. Blóðarfi er eina hérlenda tegundin, sem nú telst til þessarar ættkvíslar.

Blóðarfi ─ Polygonum aviculare L.

 

Blóðarfi í flagi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Blóðarfi í flagi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Einær jurt með marggreinóttan, jarðlægan eða uppréttan, gáróttan stöngul. Blöð eru lensulaga, sporbaugótt eða öfugegglaga og oftast nær alveg snubbótt, nærri stilklaus, heilrend og oft blágræn. Axlarslíður eru hvítleit og þunn.
Blóm eru lítil, einstök eða fá saman í blaðöxlum. Blómhlífarblöð græn með hvítan eða rauðlitan fald; blóm oft nokkuð rauleit. Aldin er þríhyrnd hneta.

Tegund þessi er mjög breytileg og hefur mörgum undirtegundum og afbrigðum verið lýst. Nú eru sex undirtegundir taldar vaxa á Norðurlöndum (Flora Nordica 1.) og eru tvær hérlendis. Erfitt getur verið að greina á milli þessara undirtegunda; helzt er það gerð og stærð blómhlífar. Þá er hnetan á fyrri undirtegund umlukt blómhlíf en á hinni síðari nær hún oftast út úr henni.
Lykill að undirtegundum:

1 Blómhlíf 3,3-5,5 mm, blaðka 77-65% af heildarlengd. Hneta umlukt blómhlíf …….. ssp. boreale
1 Blómhlíf 2,3-3,4 mm, blaðka 52-72% af heildarlengd. Hneta nær aðeins út úr blómhlíf …….. …………………………………………………………………………………ssp. neglectum

a) ssp. boreale (Lange) Karlsson er mjög algeng og vex nánast um land allt, aðallega í fjörum og við bæi, nema í miðhálendinu, en þangað hefur hún slæðzt á nokkra staði með fóðri.
b) ssp. neglectum (Besser) Arcang. hefur fundizt við Geysi í Biskupstungum; sennilega slæðingur.

Vex við hús og bæi og í fjörum. Algengur um land allt nema í miðhálendinu er hann fremur sjaldgæfur. Blómgast í júní og er oft í blóma fram í ágúst. 10-25 (-60) cm á lengd.

Mörg nöfn eru dregin af útliti. Hnútagras af smáhnútum á stöngli, rauðarfi af blómalit og tunguarfi og oddvari af blaðlögun. Nöfnin hlaðarfi, veggjaarfi, veggjahrís, varpaarfi og varpalyng benda á vaxtarstaði. Viðurnafnið aviculare er dregið af latneska orðinu avis, fugl, en fuglar nærast mjög á fræjunum, samanber nöfnin fuglaarfi og fuglabaunir. – Þegar kippt er í plöntuna kemur hún upp með rótum eins og allar einærar tegundir. (Það þarf aldrei að grafa upp rætur einærra plantna eins og mönnum er ráðlagt á ónefndum netmiðlum.)
Seyði af urtinni var brúkað við niðurgangi, matarólyst og blóðlátum, eins og nafnið blóðarfi bendir til. Gömul er sú trúa, að seyði af plöntunni stöðvi vöxt barna.

Myndin sýnir axlarslíður, blómknappa og laufblöð. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Myndin sýnir axlarslíður, blómknappa og laufblöð. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Því hefur verið haldið fram, að þetta sé útbreiddasta plöntutegund á jörðinni. Hún þolir mikið traðk og fræin geta lifað í 50 ár í jarðvegi. Annars staðar á Norðurlöndum var hún höfð í te ásamt öðrum tegundum til að lækna menn af slæmum hósta og til að örva þvaglát. Þá voru fræin höfð til matar.

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: (common) knotgrass, birdweed, pigweed, lowgrass, prostrate knotweed, wireweed, beggarweed, doorweed, ninety-knot, hundred jointed, centinode, allseed, birdweed, bird knotgrass, bird’s tounge, sparrow tounge, pigweed, cowgrass, crawlgrass, hogweed, armstrong
Danska: Almindelig Pileurt
Norska: tungras, tungress, grisgras
Sænska: trampört, trampgräs, vanlig trampört, bägartrampört, fogelknäa, trampnäva, vägört, gårdsgräs, fågelfrö, svingräs, rättadå
Finnska: pihatatar
Þýzka: Vogel-Knöterich, Knotenwegerich, Wegtritt
Franska: renouée des oiseaux, herbe aux cent nœuds, centinode

Þurrkað eintak af blóðarfa. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Þurrkað eintak af blóðarfa. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Samnefni: Polygonum aviculare L. ssp. heterophyllum (Lindm.) Asch. & Graebn., P. erectum Roth, P. heterophyllum Lindm., P. boreale (Lange) Small (ssp. boreale), P. aequale Lindm., P. aviculare L. ssp. aequale (Lindm.) Asch. & Graebn., P. calcatum Lindm., P. neglectum Besser (ssp. neglectum).

ÁHB / 8.1. 2013

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