Einir – Juniperus

Skrifað um August 21, 2014 · in Flóra · 222 Comments


Ættkvíslin einir –
Juniperus L. – heyrir til sýprisættar (Cupressaceae; sjá síðar). Flestar tegundir eru lágvaxnir runnar eða tré, oft kræklóttar eða jarðlægar.

Um 60 tegundir teljast til kvíslarinnar og eru flestar í kaldtempraða belti á norðurhveli jarðar; aðeins ein í Afríku.

Þar sem aðeins ein tegund vex villt hérlendis, er lýsing á henni látin nægja.

Tegundir af Juniperus-ættkvísl eru mjög vinsælar garðplöntur af ýmsum stærðum og gerðum. Þeim hefur því oft verið gefið sérstakt tegundarheiti og tegundirnar því sagðar mun fleiri, allt að 120. Nokkrar tegundir eru ræktaðar hér í görðum. Íslenzki einirinn þekkist auðveldlega á því, að hann hefur aðeins eina gerð af blöðum (barri).

Juniperus er ævafornt heiti á eini; uppruni þess er óviss.

 

Einir – Juniperus communis L.

Einir er eina íslenska tegundin úr hópi barrviða. Hann er kræklóttur runni. Börkur er brúnn og þunnur og flagnar af í ræmum. Blöðin, sem nefnast barr, eru lítil (um 8-18 mm á lengd), allaga og ydd, sígræn; efra borð blágrænt með mjóa eða breiða, hvítleita rák, hið neðra dökkgrænt með kjöl; barrnálarnar sitja í allt að fjögur ár á greinum, þrjár saman í þéttum, láréttum eða skástæðum krönsum.

Karlplanta af eini. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Karlplanta af eini. Ljósm. ÁHB.


Einir er sérbýlisplanta, þ.e. hefur einkynja kynhirzlur, sem eru sitt á hvorum einstaklingi. Það er að segja, að til eru annars vegar karl-plöntur og hins vegar kven-plöntur. (Ath. Einir er fræplanta en ekki blómplanta og ber því ekki blóm, heldur kynhirzlur.)

Karlkynhirzlur í (karl-)könglum í blaðöxlum, eru egglaga um 8 mm á lengd með mörg (12-15), skjadlaga og kransstæð frjóblöð. Kvenkynhirzlur í (kven-)könglum, um 2 mm á lengd. Köngulblöð eru móleit.

 

Kvenplanta af eini. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Kvenplanta af eini. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Fræin þroskast í kvenköngli, þar sem þrjú efstu fræblöðin vaxa saman að lokinni frjóvgun, verða kjötkennd og lykjast um fræin. Við þetta verður köngullinn berkenndur (berköngull) og nefnist einiber. (Ath. Köngull er ekki ber (aldin) heldur fræhirzla.)

Einir frævist af vindi að vori og fyrstu merki um verðandi berköngla, eru örlitlir gulgrænir könglar. Á öðru ári vaxa þeir frekar og verða grænir. Loks á þriðja ári verður berköngullinn dökkblár og fræ inni í honum full þroskuð; geta verið þrjú en oftast er fræið aðeins eitt. Oft má sjá öll stigin þrjú á sömu plöntu.

Fremst á þroskuðum einiberjum koma fræblöðin saman og má þar sjá þrjár skorur (sjá síðar).

Hér á landi vaxa tvær deilitegundir:
a) ssp. communis
b) ssp. nana (Willd.) Syme [syn. ssp. alpina (Sm.) Čelak.]

Fyrri deilitegundin er mun sjaldgæfari, aðallega um norðanvert land, getur orðið um 2 m á hæð. Nálar eru heldur lengri og rákin á efra borði er tiltölulega mjó eða álíka breið og grænu jaðrarnir; mjög hvassar.

Seinni deilitegundin er smávaxnari og mjög algeng. Nálar styttri og rákin á efra borði um tvöfalt breiðari en grænu jaðrarnir; ekki mjög hvassar.

 

Vex í kjarri, mólendi, lautabörðum og víðar. Er hér og hvar í öllum landshlutum. Getur orðið allt að 2 m á hæð en venjulega smávaxnari og skriðull.

Viðurnafnið communis merkir venjulegur og nanus, dvergvaxinn.


Einir er til margra hluta nytsamur. Í stuttu máli má segja, að einiber þóttu góð við nýrnaveiki, tíðaverkjum, berklum, magasjúkdómum, gikt, augnveiki og sem græðismyrsl. Þeir, sem eru veikir í nýrum, mega ekki neyta einis í neinni mynd og varast skal ofneyslu. Á fyrri öldum var reykur af einiberjum látinn leika um sængurkonur til þess að halda djöflinum í hæfilegri fjarlægð. Úr berjum fæst olía við eimingu og það er hún, sem gefur hollenskum sjeniver og ensku gini sérlegt bragð.

Einiviður er seigur og þéttur í sér. Í Noregi er hann víða nýttur. Hann er kjörinn í göngustafi, kistur, gjarðir, körfur og staura. Hrífutindar voru gerðir úr eini en líka bátasaumur, snagar, öskjur, tölur og fleiri smáhlutir.

Viðurinn lyktar vel, einkum ef sett er á hann eitthvert heitt ílát. Limi var oft stráð á gólf, þegar mikið var við haft. Þá þykir hann gefa mjög gott bragð, sé hann notaður til kaldreykingar á silungi.

Einiber, Baccae Juniperi, er bezt að tína að hausti og þá aðeins blá. Áður fyrr voru þau á lyfjaskrám en nú eru þurrkuð ber einkum notuð til þess að krydda villibráð og ýmsa drykki eins og gin. (Barrnálar má einnig nota sem krydd.) Þá má nota þau til sápugerðar; einnig voru þau notuð til sótthreinsunar.

Lækningamáttur einiberja er fólginn í því, að þau veikla vöxt gerla og sveppa í líkamanum.

Í Noregi var bruggað létt öl úr barri og berjum og eru um það til margar uppskriftir. Einnig voru marin einiber sett út í sterkt áfengi og látið standa í eina eða tvær vikur unz það var síað frá. Þótti þetta gott meðal við ýmsum kvillum.

Olía úr einiberjum hefur verið brúkuð í árþúsundir. Hún er sögð styrkja ónæmiskerfið og er án allra aukaverkana. Hún er sögð einkar góð við slæmum hósta og þá hreinsar hún húðina.

 

Sænskur silfurkross, sem sýnir Mjölni.

Sænskur silfurkross, sem sýnir Mjölni.

Einir kemur víða við sögu og var sums staðar litið á hann sem heilagt tré. Í Noregi var það trúa manna, að þyrnikóróna Krists hefði verið fléttuð úr eini. Því til sönnunar er þríarma kross á enda einibers, þar sem fræblöðin koma saman. Fyrir tíma kristinnar trúar var litið á þennan kross sem tákn Mjölnis, hamars Þórs.

 

Þar sem fræblöðin þrjú koma saman á einiberi, mynda skorur á milli þeirra þríarma kross. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Þar sem fræblöðin þrjú koma saman á einiberi, mynda skorur á milli þeirra þríarma kross. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Margt er óljóst um notkun einis hér á landi. Víða var þó venja að skreyta með eini um jól og algengt er að hafa hann við kaldreykingar. Þá var einiberjum safnað og þau höfð til að bragðbæta meðal annars kaffi.

 

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: common juniper
Danska: Ene
Norska: einer, ener, ene, en, eine og ein
Sænska: en, enbuske; vanlig en (ssp. communis) fjäll-en (ssp. nana)
Finnska: kotikataja
Þýzka: Heide-Wacholder
Franska: genévrier commun

Leitarorð:

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