Naflagras – Koenigia islandica

Skrifað um December 4, 2012 · in Flóra · 172 Comments

Naflagras úr Flora Danica. Málað eftir íslenzku eintaki.

Naflagras úr Flora Danica. Málað eftir íslenzku eintaki. Oeder, G.C., Flora Danica, Hft 7, t. 418 (1761-1883)

Naflagrös ─ Koenigia
Ættkvíslin naflagrös (Koenigia L.) tilheyrir súruætt (Polygonaceae). Latneska ættkvíslarheitið, Koenigia, er til heiðurs lækninum og grasafræðingnum Johann G. König (1728–1785), en hann sendi Linné fyrstur manna eintök af þessari tegund héðan frá Íslandi. König hafði tíu árum áður verið nemandi Linnés. König var sendur til Íslands af stjórnvöldum í Danmörku og ferðaðist víða um land sumrin 1764 og 1765. Teiknari var í för með honum til þess að teikna myndir í Flora Danica.
Johann G. König var fæddur nálægt Kreuzberg í pólsku Livonia, sem er nú Krustpils í Lettlandi fæddur í 1728 í Ungerhof, í pólska Livlandi og var því ekki danskur eins og víða er haldið fram.

Til þessarar ættkvíslar teljast sex tegundir. Þær eru: Koenigia delicatula, K. forrestii, K. islandica, K. nepalensis, K. nummulariifolia og K. pilosa.

Hér á landi vex aðeins ein tegund, Koenigia islandica L.

Linné lýsti tegundinni fyrstur manna og gaf henni nafn, og birtist lýsingin í Mantissa Plantarum vol 1: 1767:

Frumlýsing Linnés á naflagrasi.

Frumlýsing Linnés á naflagrasi.

 

Naflagras – Koenigia islandica L.
Einær, safamikil og hárlaus planta, sem oftast er aðeins nokkrir sentímetrar á hæð (1-7 cm). Stöngullinn er mjór, linur og nærri gagnsær, gulgrænn neðst en rauðfjólublár efst. Oft er hann óskiptur en á stundum kvíslaður. Greinar oft rótskeytar.

Myndin sýnir naflagras úr safni Linnés, sem J.G. König sendi honum.

Myndin sýnir naflagras úr safni Linnés, sem J.G. König sendi honum.

Blöðin eru nærri stilklaus, heilrend, sporbaugótt og rauðleit. Þau eru nærri gagnstæð en um miðjan stöngul stakstæð. Efst á stöngli eru blöð jafnan þéttstæð. Axlarslíður vel þroskað, rauðleitt og himnukennt.
Blómin eru tvíkynja, örsmá í skúfum inni í blaðsveipunum, ljósleit eða gulgræn. Blómstönglar stuttir eða engir. Blómhlíf einföld, þrjú (sjaldan 4), grænleit (geta verið hvít- eða rauleit) blöð (0,9 – 1,8 mm á lengd). Fræflar 3 (einnig oft með 3 geldfræfla), og eru þeir fagurgulir eins og hunangskirtlarnir. Frævan er stíllaus með þremur frænum. Aldin er hneta.

Vex í deigri moldarjörð, leirflögum og víðar. Algengt um land allt, nema á þurrasta svæði landsins norðan Vatnajökuls. Blómgast í júní. 1–7 cm á hæð.

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: Iceland-purslane, Koenigia
Danska: Dværgsyre
Norska: Dvergsyre
Sænska: Dvärgsyra, königs-ört
Finnska: Kurjentatar
Þýzka: Königia, Nabel Kraut
French: Koenigie d’islande

 

Naflagras vex oft í þéttum breiðum við litla samkeppni. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Naflagras vex oft í þéttum breiðum við litla samkeppni. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Samnefni:

Koenigia hadacii A. Löve & D. Löve, K. islandica L. var. arctica Hadac, Polygonum islandicum (L.) Hook. f.

 

ÁHB / 4.12.2012

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