Alurtir – Subularia

Skrifað um August 28, 2016 · in Flóra · 129 Comments

Alurt í Víkingavatni 28. ágúst 2016. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Alurt á botni í Víkingavatni 28. ágúst 2016. Ljósm. ÁHB.


Ættkvíslin alurtir – Subularia L. – telst til krossblómaættar (Brassicaceae, syn. Crusiferae). Plöntur kvíslarinnar eru smávaxnir, hárlausir einæringar. Stöngull er uppréttur, sívalur, blaðlaus; oft nokkrir stönglar saman. Blöð eru öll í stofnhvirfingu, allaga, allt að 3 cm á lengd.
Blómskipun er fáblóma klasi, á stundum með aðeins einu blómi. Bikarblöð snubbótt, með mjóan himnufald. Krónublöð hvít. Skálpar venjulega fræmargir og stíllausir.
Alurtir eru að því leyti ólíkar öðrum tegundum innan krossblómaættar, að blöð eru allaga í stofnhvirfingu.

Ættkvíslarnafnið Subularia er dregið af latneska orðinu ‘subula’, alur, sýll.

Aðeins tvær tegundir tilheyra ættkvíslinni og vex önnur þeirra hér, S. aquatica, en hin, S. monticola A. Br. ex Schweinf., í Afríku, einkum hátt yfir sjó.


Alurt – Subularia aquatica L.

Alurt er einær, smávaxin, hárlaus jurt. Stöngull er uppréttur eða uppsveigður, blaðlaus, sívalur. Oft eru margir stönglar í sömu hvirfingu. Blöð í stofnhvirfingu, allaga, allt að 3 cm á lengd.
Blómskipun er gisblóma klasi, oft eitt eða fáein blóm saman. Krónublöð eru lítil og hvít; blómgist tegundin niðri í vatni vaxa engin krónublöð. Skálpar eru egglaga (20-35 mm x 1,2-2 mm), lítið eitt hliðflatir, skilrúm er samsíða hliðflötu hliðunum. Fræ er ljósbrúnt og smátt (0,8-1 x 0,5-0,8 mm).

Fljótt á litið líkist alurt tjarnalauk (Plantago uniflora (syn. Littorella uniflora)) en blöðin á honum eru þykk og safamikil; að auki er tjarnalaukur með langskriðular renglur. Oft fljóta uppslitnar alurta-plöntur á vatni og eru rætur snjóhvítar.

Alurt fljótandi á vatni. Rætur eru skjannahvítar. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Alurt fljótandi á vatni. Rætur eru skjannahvítar. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Viðurnafnið aquatica er dregið af latneska orðinu ‘aqua’, vatn.

Vex í grunnum tjörnum og á uppþornuðum tjarnastæðum. Algeng á Suður- og Suðvesturlandi og hér og hvar í öðrum landshlutum. Blómgast í júli. 1-6 cm á hæð.


Nöfn á erlendum málum:

Enska: american water-awlwort
Danska: Sylblad
Norska: sylblad
Sænska: sylört
Finnska: äimäruoho
Þýzka: Pfriemenkresse
Franska: subulaire aquatique


Þurrkað eintak af alurt. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Þurrkað eintak af alurt. Ljósm. ÁHB.



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