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Skrifað um May 20, 2015 · in Almennt · 7,799 Comments

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Mikið vatn er runnið til sjávar síðan eg lærði grasafræði um miðjan sjöunda áratug síðustu aldar í Uppsölum í Svíþjóð. Ýmislegt, sem þá var hulið, hefur verið uppgötvað hin síðari ár. Sérstaklega á það við um erfðafræði og lífeðlisfræði plantna. Margvísleg flókin efnaferli hafa verið rannsökuð í þaula og mörg ferli eru nú þekkt í smæstu atriðum. Engu að síður var mönnum nokkuð ljós heildarmyndin á þessum árum, þó að menn kynnu ekki að skýra hana til hlítar.

Eitt var það fyrirbrigði, sem mönnum var hugleikið á þessum árum, og það var hvað veldur því, að fræ (eða gró) tekur að spíra eða ála eins og það er á stundum nefnt. Snemma var mönnum ljóst, að þrennt þurfti til: vatn, súrefni og hæfilegur hiti.

Síðar kom á daginn, að ljós skiptir einnig miklu máli, þó einkum, ef fræið er lítið. Ekki er þó svo að skilja, að fræ þurfi að liggja ofan á jörðinni, því að nægilegt ljós nær 2-4 cm niður í jarðveginn og að auki er ljósþörfin mjög mismikil. Fræ einstakra tegunda þarf allt að hálfs mánaðar birtu en annarra kannski ekki nema hálfan sólarhring og þá nægir í sumum tilfellum skær birta af tungli. Meðal tegunda, sem örvast í lítilli birtu eru furur og birki. Þá er sumt fræ háð tímalengd ljóss, ljóslotubundið, eða öllu heldur tímalengd myrkurs. Einnig getur styrkur steinefna í jarðvegi ráðið miklu. Skortur á nitri (köfnunarefni) er algeng ástæða fyrir því að fræ nær ekki að spíra.

En það eru aðeins fáein fræ, sem spíra viðstöðulaust standi þeim þetta allt til boða. Það má nefna víðifræ og flestar ertur (baunir). Algengast er, að fræ þurfi að undirgangast tilskilinn hvíldartíma og álar ekki nema við sérstakar aðstæður.

Flestir hafa heyrt um fræ með svo þéttan hjúp, að hvorki vatn né súrefni komast inn nema rispur eða sprungur myndist í skelina. Gamalt ráð er að núa slíku fræi á milli blaða af sandpappír. Margar eyðimerkurtegundir þroska slíkt fræ og hefur verið talið, að það þurfi að hrekjast í sandi til að spíra. En meðal tegunda, sem vaxa ekki í eyðimerkum, eru ýmsar örverur, sem vinna þá á fræskelinni og flýta þannig fyrir spírun.

Þá er vel þekkt, að í sumu fræi eru efni, sem hamla spírun. Fræið þarf því að blotna ríkulega, svo að efnið skolist burtu. Til þessa hóps teljast einnig nokkrar eyðimerkurtegundir og þetta hefur verið talin lögun að aðstæðum þar. Það er nefnilega ljóst, að fræið á ekki að ála fyrr en eftir kröftugt regn, svo að nokkurn veginn sé tryggt, að plantan drepist ekki úr vatnsskorti.

Vert er í þessu sambandi að nefna einn fulltrúa þessa hóps. Það er gúmrunni, Parthenium argentatum Gray, sem er upprunninn í suðvesturhluta Bandaríkjanna og Mexíkó norðanverðri. Runninn er af körfublómaætt og heitir guayule á flestum málum. Nafnið ‚guayule‘ er dregið af nahuatl-íska orðinu ‚ulli eða olli‘, sem þýðir gúmmí. En ‚nahuatl‘ er nafn á nokkrum tungumálum, sem eru töluð í Mexíkó og víðar í Mið-Ameríku. Gúmrunni er gæddur þeim eiginleika, að úr honum má vinna latex-gúmmí. Það hefur reyndar verið gert í áraraðir en hefur notið lítillrar athygli fyrr en hin síðari ár. Ástæðan fyrir því, að nú er mikill áhugi á ræktun runnans, er einkum tvíþætt. Í fyrsta lagi er auðvelt að rækta tegundina og meðal annars á stöðum, þar sem aðrar tegundir þrífast ekki eða illa. Í öðru lagi veldur latex-gúmmí unnið úr runnanum ekki ofnæmi eins og mjög algengt er úr öðrum tegundum (einkum af Hevea-ættkvísl).

Á stundum eru efni, sem hindra spírun, ekki í fræinu sjálfu, heldur í aldininu, sem umlykur það. Þannig er því meðal annars háttað hjá arfamustarði (Sinapis arvensis), sem er algengur slæðingur hérlendis, tómat, epli og sítrónu. Yfirleitt losna flest fræ strax úr aldinum og taka að spíra, en þó geta ávallt nokkur setið eftir. Oftast rotna vefir í aldininu ekki fyrr en löngu seinna og þá færist líf í fræin, sem þar urðu eftir. Þetta veldur því, að spírunartími fræsins dreifist á lengri tíma en ella og um leið aukast líkur á að ungplönturnar nái að dafna.

Hér er það fleira, sem kemur til. Það eru líka áhrif frá umhverfinu, sem skipta máli. Fræ allmargra tegunda fer ekki að spíra almennilega nema það hafi legið áður í kulda, 5 til 10°C, í 3 til 6 vikur. Meðal slíkra tegunda eru flest barrtré, elri og reyniviðir. Menn hafa þó enn óljósar hugmyndir um, hvaða áhrif kuldi hefur á þroskunina, en telja, að þetta feli í sér aðlögun að ákveðnu umhverfi.

Líklegt þykir, að einhver þeirra efna, sem annaðhvort örva spírun eða hamla, hverfi fyrr en ella við lágan hita. Þá er unnt að örva spírun grasfræs með því að láta hita sveiflast á milli hárra og lágra gilda. Síðan þarf sumt fræ að verða fyrir verulegu hita-áreiti til að ála, eins og hjá Geranium bohemicum (sviðjublágresi), sem ríkur upp eftir sinubruna.

Oftast er það þó þannig, að það er samverkun tveggja eða fleirri þátta, sem stjórnar spíruninni. Sem dæmi má nefna, að ljós hefur ekki áhrif nema hiti sé fyrir neðan ákveðið mark. Jafnvel þótt fræ búi við beztu skilyrði spírar það ekki. Sum fræ eru þannig úr garði gerð, að þeim er ætlað að geymast um langan tíma. Á stundum er auðvelt að sjá, hvort fræ kemur til með að spíra fljótt eða geymast. Í kvíslskúfum plantna af hjartagrasaætt verða neðstu fræin og þau, sem þroskast fyrst, stór og þung og innihalda mikið af spírunarhamlandi efnum. Yztu fræin í blómskipuninni verða lítil og létt og ála innan langs tíma. Líkt er háttað í krækiberjum (Empetrum hermaphroditum). Fræ í ytri hluta bersins spíra fljótt, en þau, sem liggja innst og neðst í berinu, geta geymzt um langan tíma.

Hélunjóli (Chenopodium album), sem vex hér sem slæðingur, er nokkuð sérstakur. Fræ hans gefur frá sér efni, sem tálmar spírun fræja annarra tegunda. Þannig hefur fræ hans meiri möguleika en ella á að vaxa í fullþroska plöntu. Reyndar er þetta vel þekkt í plöturíkinu, en oftast seytla þvílík efni frá rótum fullvaxinna plantna. En fræ hélunjólans er af tveimur gerðum. Annars vegar eru mjúk, brún fræ með þunna skel um 5% og hins vegar eru um 95% svört, hörð og með þykka skel. Brúna fræið spírar fljótt og vel en hið svarta getur geymzt lengi í jarðvegi og myndar svo kallaðan fræbanka.

Mikið hefur verið rætt og ritað um, hve lengi fræ getur varveitzt. Það er mjög misjafnt og rannsóknir á því eru tiltölulega skammt á veg komnar. Mest er vitað um fræ af nytjaplöntum og þeim tegundum, sem valda mönnum erfiðleikum við ræktun. Um algengar, villtar tegundir er því mun minna vitað. Fræ einærra tegunda verða að halda lífsþrótti sínum í að minnsta kosti ár, korntegundir venjulega í um þrjú ár eða lengur, ef fræ er geymt í kæli. Á hinn bóginn endist fræ af ýmsum viðartegundum ekki nema fáeina daga eða vikur.

Ef til vill verður fjallað nánar um þetta síðar.

ÁHB / 20. maí 2015

 

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