Sóðaleg umhirða á trjám

Skrifað um May 28, 2014 · in Almennt · 109 Comments

Illa farið með fallegt tré. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Illa farið með fallegt tré. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Sérhver tegund af fræplöntum hefur sérstakt og einkennandi útlit eða vaxtarlag, svo að oft er auðvelt að greina á milli tegunda úr fjarska. Þetta á sérlega við um trjátegundir og er jafnan auðvelt að greina tegundir, þó að þær séu lauflausar. Vaxtarlag (arkitektonik) trjánna markast meðal annars af hlutfallslegri lengd, gildleika og fjölda hliðargreina miðað við aðalstofn; hlutfalli á milli síðvaxtar og frumvaxtar; stöðu blaða og hliðarbruma ásamt ýmsu öðru.

 

Á milli hinna ýmsu hluta trésins ríkir ákveðið jafnvægi, svo að tréð fær ákveðið útlit með tíð og tíma. Það eru ákveðin hormón úr vaxtarvefjum, sem stjórna þessum vexti. Vissulega hefur umhverfið, eins og birta, vindur og væta, ávallt talsverð áhrif á, hvernig verkun þeirra birtist.

 

Hér hefur verið sagað ofan af reyni og gullregni. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Hér hefur verið sagað ofan af reyni og gullregni. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Tré, sem vaxa í görðum, eru oft dálítið frábrugðin þeim, sem lifa úti í náttúrunni. Samt sem áður leynir vaxtarlagið sér sjaldnast, þó að trén vaxi upp við tilbúnar aðstæður. Oft er þörf á (en sjaldan nauðsyn) að klippa til eða laga vöxt trjáa í görðum. Það er þó alls ekki sama, hvernig að verki er staðið. Menn þurfa að þekkja vel til tegundarinnar og gera sér grein fyrir vaxtarlagi. Víða má sjá merki um hroðvirknisleg vinnubrögð, sem hafa verið unnin af algjörum þekkingarskorti, jafnt í einka- sem almenningsgörðum.

 

Tilsýndar er þetta birkitré hrein hörmung. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Tilsýndar er þetta birkitré hrein hörmung. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Undanfarin ár hefur víða mátt sjá herfilegar afleiðingar lítillar verkkunnáttu. Þegar tré hafa náð nokkurri hæð og eru farin að skyggja á hús og garða, hafa menn gripið til þess ráðs að saga verulegan hluta ofan af þeim. Við þennan skurð tapast helmingur eða meira af laufum trésins, en það eru einmitt þau, sem framleiða lífræna næringu við ljóstillífun. Þetta veldur miklu álagi á tréð og svo getur farið, að forðanæring, sem er geymd í rót, stofni og greinum nægi alls ekki til þess að tréð rétti úr kútnum og það drepst.

Í annan stað eru skurðsárin stór og því mikil hætta á, að sveppir hlaupi í sárið. Skemmdir af völdum sveppa koma oft og tíðum ekki fram fyrr en eftir nokkur ár. Oftast er skaðlaust að saga af nokkrar hliðagreinar, ef rétt er að staðið. Þá myndast í trénu ákveðin varnarefni, sem koma í veg fyrir sveppasýkingar, og börkur lokar sárinu tiltölulega fljótt. Slíkt gerist ekki, þegar stofninn er sagaður í sundur.

Viðbrögð trésins eru þau, að mynda nýjar hliðargreinar rétt fyrir neðan skurðinn. Oftast hleypur mikill vöxtur í þessar nýju greinar, svo að það líður ekki á löngu þar til það þarf að skerða þær. Þetta er því oft skammgóður vermir. Þá er vert að hafa það í huga, að þessar hliðargreinar sitja alls ekki eins fastar á aðalstofni og aðrar greinar. Þeim er miklu hættara við að brotna af í roki. Nái þær að vaxa verulega og gildna stafar mun meiri hætta af þeim en öðrum greinum.

Sköpulag trésins er eitt af undrum náttúrunnar. Hver grein leitast við að mynda eins mörg laufblöð og unnt er og hagræða þeim móti ljósi til þess að framleiða sem mest af lífrænum næringarefnum. Sérhver trjákróna er meistarasmíð. Að skera ofan af stæðilegum trjám er því eitt af því fávísasta, sem menn taka sér fyrir hendur. Að auki er þetta hrikalega ljótt.
Á hinn bóginn er auðvelt að hafa ákveðna stjórn á vexti trjáa. Þá verður að klippa þau til um það bil annað hvert ár og haga klippingu eftir settum reglum. Oft má fara þá leið að grisja krónuna smám saman um allt að 25%, svo að hún hleypi meira ljósi í gegn. – En umfram allt, hættið að afskræma tré. Það er miklu hreinlegra að fella þau og planta að nýju öðrum tegundum, sem falla betur að umhverfi.

 

ÁHB / 28. maí 2014

 

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