Philonotis – hnappmosar

Skrifað um January 25, 2015 · in Mosar · 124 Comments

Karlplöntur eru mjög áberandi; Philonotis fontana. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Karlplöntur eru mjög áberandi; Philonotis fontana. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Ættkvíslin Philonotis Brid. (hnappmosar) heyrir til Bartramiaceae (strýmosaætt). Um 170 tegundum hefur verið lýst innan kvíslarinnar en um 60 eru almennt viðurkenndar. Hér á landi vaxa sex tegundir en sjö á Norðurlöndum öllum. Mikill breytileiki er innan kvíslar og getur nafngreing því reynzt harla erfið. Varast skal að skoða ung blöð.

Plöntur eru grænar eða ljósgrænar í þúfum í rökum jarðvegi, við læki og vötn, í dýjum, mýrum og flóum, en einnig á skuggsælum stöðum í hraunum, klettum og við heitar laugar. Ljósgræn blöð á rauðlitum stöngli er einmitt sérlega einkennandi fyrir tegundir kvíslarinnar. Plöntur hér eru einkynja, og því eru sérstakar karl- og kvenplöntur. Ein tegund, P. fontana, er þó alloft með gróhirzlur, aðrar sjaldan og sumar aldrei hér á landi. Á karlplöntum vex oft sérstakur greinakrans út úr stöngli rétt fyrir neðan kynhirzlurnar og stendur beint út í loftið.

 

 

Greiningarlykill að tegundum innan ættkvíslar Philonotis:

1 Blaðfrumur með vörtur í framenda (sjaldan sléttar). Tennur í blaðrönd einfaldar ………… 2
1 Blaðfrumur með vörtur í neðri enda (á stundum einnig í framenda). Tennur í blaðrönd einfaldar eða tvöfaldar ………… 3

2 Sprotar sjaldan lengri en 1,5 cm; vörtur aðeins á frumum framan til í blaði. Blöð 0,5-1,0 (-1,2) mm á lengd …. P. arnellii
2 Sprotar oft 2-5 cm á lengd; vörtur líka á frumum neðan til í blaði. Blöð 1-2 mm á lengd ……. P. marchica

3 Blöð í fimm gormlaga röðum á stöngli. Rif mjög vörtótt nær allt á baki og þekur um 20% af blaðgrunni ……. P. seriata
3 Blöð ekki í undnum röðum á stöngli. Rif lítið vörtótt eða slétt á baki og þekur minna en 15% af blaðgrunni ……. 4

4 Flestar tennur í blaðrönd einfaldar. Blaðrönd flöt eða aðeins lítillega útundin neðst. Blöð oft einhliðasveigð og ekki með langfellingar í grunni ….. P. caespitosa
4 Flestar tennur í blaðrönd tvöfaldar. Blaðrönd greinilega útundin. Blöð upprétt, sjaldan einhliðasveigð, en ýmist með langfellingar eða ekki í grunni ….. 5

5 Rif 75-150 µm breitt við grunn, gengur lítið eða ekkert fram úr blaði. Langfellingar neðst í blaði, rif í skoru (sést vel í þverskurði). Innri karlhlífarblöð snubbótt …………… P. fontana
5 Rif 30-80 µm breitt við grunn, gengur oftast fram úr blaði. Engar langfellingar neðst í blaði. Innri karlhlífarblöð ydd ……… P. tomentella
Philonotis Brid.

Philonotis arnellii Husn. — vætuhnappur

Philonotis caespitosa Jur. — sytruhnappur

Philonotis fontana (Hedw.) Brid. — dýjahnappur

Philonotis marchica (Hedw.) Brid. — laugahnappur

Philonotis seriata Mitt. — lækjahnappur

Philonotis tomentella Molendo — fjallahnappur
Lýsingar á tegundum, myndir og teikningar bíða betri tíma.
Helztu heimildir:
A.J.E. Smith, 2004: The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press
Ágúst H. Bjarnason, 2010: Greiningarlykill að ættkvíslum íslenzkra blaðmosa (Musci) ásamt tegundaskrá. Fjölrit Vistfræðistofu n:r
40. Reykjavík.
Bergþór Jóhannsson: Íslenskir mosar. Fjölrit Náttúrufræðistofnunar n:r 26. Janúar 1995.
Elsa Nyholm, 1998: Illustrated Flora of Nordic Mosses. Fasc. 4. Copenhagen and Lund.
Tomas Hallingbäck et al.: Bladmossor: Kompaktmossor-kapmossor. ArtDatabanken, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet. Uppsala 2008.
Tomas Hallingbäck, Ingmar Holmåsen, 2008: Mossor. En fälthandbok. Interpublishing. Stockholm.

 

ÁHB / 25. janúar 2015

P.s. Höfundur hlaut styrk frá Hagþenki 2014 til ritstarfa.

 

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