Dicranoweisia – kármosar

Skrifað um January 12, 2015 · in Mosar · 220 Comments

 

Dicranoweisia crispula. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Dicranoweisia crispula; þurr planta. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Ættkvíslin Dicranoweisia Lindberg ex Milde (kármosar) heyrir nú til Rhabdoweisiaceae (kármosaætt), en taldist áður til Dicranaceae (brúskmosaætt). Til kvíslarinnar teljast um 20 tegundir, þrjár vaxa annars staðar á Norðurlöndum en aðeins ein hérlendis, D crispula. Þar af leiðandi er lýsing á henni látin nægja.

Þess má geta, að um 100 tegundir blaðmosa hafa fundizt á Suðurskautslandinu og er D. crispula ein þeirra.

Ættkvíslarnafnið Dicranoweisia er samsett úr tveimur kvílsarnöfnum öðrum, Dicranum og Weissia, og er til merkis um, að tegundir líkjast mosum beggja. Þegar mosarnir eru þurrir eru blöð hrokkin og uppundin og líkjast Weissia en í votviðri eru blöðin einhliðasveigð og útstæð og tegundirnar líkjast Dicranum eða öllu heldur Kiaeria, sem er náskyld.

 

Dicranoweisia crispula (Hedwig) Milde – kármosi

Plöntur mynda um 3 cm háar þúfur eða bólstra, gulgrænar að lit en oft svartleitar, einkum að innan. Rætlingar brúnir og sléttir. Blöð undin og hrokkin, 2-3 mm á lengd; frá mjó-egglaga grunni mjókka blöðin fram í langan, rennulaga, þríhyndan framhluta. Blaðrönd flöt (sjaldan innsveigð), ótennt en getur verið ójöfn. Rif nær fram í blaðenda.
Frumur í framhluta blaðs ferningslaga og um 8 µm á breidd í greinilegum langröðum með þykka veggi. Í neðri hluta blaðs eru frumur aflangar, ferhyrndar með þykka veggi. Á frumuveggjum eru hryggir eftir endilöngu í reglulegum röðum, sem sjást sem hvítar rákir í smásjá. Í þverskurði virðast blöðin vera með vörtur. Hornfrumur eru á stundum í blöðum, en mis greinilegar. Þær eru breiðari en aðrar frumur og ná um hálfa leið að rifi. Þær verða brúnleitar með aldrinum.

Gróhirzlur eru mjög algengar. Stilkur er allt að 1,5 cm á hæð, gulur í fyrstu en verður síðar brúnn. Gróhirzlur eru gulbrúnar, uppréttar, mjó-egglaga til sívalar og sléttar; gamlar þurrar hirzlur eru þó hrukkóttar. Tennur eru 16, oft klofnar eða götóttar fremst, vörtóttar, rau- eða gulbrúnar. Opkransinn er festur innaná hirzlu alllangt fyrir neðan gróhirzluopið, semm er rauðleitt. Gró 10-15 µm að þvermáli, gul á lit og fínvörtótt.

Dicranoweisia crispula; rök planta. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Dicranoweisia crispula; rök planta. Ljósm. ÁHB.

 

Viðurnafnið crispula er komið úr latínu og merkir nokkuð hrokkinn; crispus, hrokkinn, –ulus er smækkunarviðskeyti.

Tegundin er mjög breytileg og hefur mörgum afbrigðum verið lýst.

Vex á steinum, í klettum og á öðru hörðu undirlagi, getur þó einnig vaxið í sandi, á sólríkum stöðum. Mjög algeng um land allt.

Helztu heimildir:
A.J.E. Smith, 2004: The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press
Ágúst H. Bjarnason, 2010: Greiningarlykill að ættkvíslum íslenzkra blaðmosa (Musci) ásamt tegundaskrá. Fjölrit
Vistfræðistofu n:r 40. Reykjavík.
Bergþór Jóhannsson: Íslenskir mosar. Fjölrit Náttúrufræðistofnunar n:r 19. Nóvember 1991.
Tomas Hallingbäck et al.: Bladmossor: Sköldmossor-blåmossor. ArtDatabanken, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet. Uppsala
2008.
Tomas Hallingbäck, Ingmar Holmåsen, 2008: Mossor. En fälthandbok. Interpublishing. Stockholm.

ÁHB / 12. janúar 2015

P.s. Höfundur hlaut styrk frá Hagþenki 2014 til ritstarfa.

 

 

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