Lyngætt – Ericaceae

Skrifað um August 13, 2012 · in Flóra · 38 Comments

Blóm á aðalbláberjalyngi

Blóm á aðalbláberjalyngi

Til lyngættar (Ericaceae) teljast jurtir, smárunnar, runnar og tré með heil, oft leðurkennd, barrlík, sí- eða sumargræn blöð. Blöðin eru stakstæð, gagnstæð eða kransstæð, á stundum í stofnhvirfingu. Blóm eru regluleg (óregluleg hjá Rhododendron), tvíkynja, fjór- eða fimm-deild. Bikar er oft samblaða. Krónan er laus- eða samblaða, oft bjöllulaga en getur verið lítil og ósjáleg. Fræflar eru 8 eða 10 (sjaldan 5), oft með tvö horn. Fræva með einn stíl, 2 til 5 blaða, yfir- eða undirsætin. Aldin er hýði, ber eða steinaldin.
Ættin skiptist í um 120 ættkvíslir með um 3500 tegundum. Fyrr á árum töldust ýmsar ættkvíslir til eigin ætta, en nýjar rannsóknir (Kron, K.A et al. (2002): Phylogenetic Classification of Ericaceae: Molecular and Morphological Evidence. The Bot. Review 68 (3): 335–423) hafa leitt í ljós, að eftirtaldar ættir eiga að teljast til lyngættar: Empetraceae, Epacridaceae, Monotropaceae, Prionotaceae og Pyrolaceae.

Lyngætt er skipt í eftirtaldar undirættir:
1. Enkianthoideae Kron, Judd & Anderberg (1 ættkvísl, 16 tegundir)
2. Pyroloideae Kosteltsky (4 ættkvíslir, 40 tegundir)
3. Monotropoideae Arnott (10 ættkvíslir, 15 tegundir)
4. Arbutoideae Niedenzu (5 ættkvíslir, 80 tegundir)
5. Cassiopoideae Kron & Judd (1 ættkvísl, 12 tegundir)
6. Ericoideae Link (19 ættkvíslir, 1790 tegundir)
7. Harrimanelloideae Kron & Judd (1 ættkvísl, 2 tegundir)
8. Styphelioideae Sweet (35 ættkvíslir, 545 tegundir)
9. Vaccinioideae Arnott (50 ættkvíslir, 1580 tegundir)

Hér á landi eru 10 ættkvíslir með 15 tegundum auk eins slæðings í eigin kvísl. Það eru:
klukkublóm (Pyrola minor L.)
bjöllulilja (Pyrola grandiflora Radius)
grænlilja (Orthilia secunda (L.) House)
sauðamergur (Loiseleuria procumbens (L.) Desv.)
bláklukkulyng (Phyllodoce caerulea (L.) Bab.)
mosalyng (Cassiope hypnoides (L.) D. Don)
ljósalyng (Andromeda polifolia L.)
sortulyng (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Sprengel)
beitilyng (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull)
aðalbláberjalyng (Vaccinium myrtillus L.)
bláberjalyng (Vaccinium uliginosum L.)
rauðberjalyng (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.)
mýraberjalyng (Vaccinium microcarpum (Turcz. ex Rupr.) Schmalh.)
krækilyng (Empetrum nigrum L.)
krummalyng (Empetrum hermaphroditum Hagerup)
og slæðingurinn
haustlyng (Erica tetralis L.)

Þá eru margar tegundir ræktaðar til skrauts í görðum. Má þar nefna rósalyng (Rhododendron spp.), skriðdeslyng (Gaultheria procumbens L.) og lambasveiplyng (Kalmia angustifolia L.)

Tegundirnar dreifast um allan heim, en vaxa helzt í tempruðu beltunum og á heimskautasvæðum.

Lykill að ættkvíslum:
1. Jurtir; blöð breið og slétt, oft í stofnhvirfingu ……………………………………………….. 2
1. Kræklóttir smárunnar; blöð barrlík eða breið og slétt, ekki í stofnhvirfingu ……….. 3
2. Klasi alhliða, blóm hvít eða rauðleit; blöð í stofnhvirfingu ………….. vetrarliljur (Pyrola)
2. Klasi einhliða, blóm grænhvít; blöð á neðri hluta stönguls ……….. grænliljur (Orthelia)
3. Blöð mjó, barrlík ………………………………………………………………………… 4
3. Blöð aflöng, sporöskjulaga eða egglaga, ekki barrlík ……………………….. 8
4. Blóm lítil, óásjáleg, króna hárauð. Steinaldin, svart, berlíkt …. krækilyng (Empetrum)
4. Blóm hvít eða rauð til rauðfjólublá. Aldin hýði …………………………… 5
5. Króna fjór-deild. Blóm stuttleggjuð …………………………………………………. 6
5. Króna fimm-deild. Blóm langleggjuð ……………………………………………….. 7
6. Blómklasar einhliða. Króna opin, greinilega styttri en bikar. Blöð ekki kirtilhærð ….. …….. …………………………………………………………………………………… beitilyng (Calluna)
6. Blóm í kollóttum sveip. Króna bjöllulaga, greinilega lenri en bikar. Blöð kirtilhærð. Slæðingur ……………………………………………………………………………. haustlyng (Erica)
7. Blóm rauðblá (sjaldan hvít), króna krukkulaga. Fræflar hornalausir …… bláklukkulyng (Phyllodoce)
7. Blóm hvít (oft með rauðleitum faldi), króna bjöllulaga. Fræflar með tveimur hornum …………………………………………………………………………………. mosalyng (Cassiope)
8. Blóm yfirsætin. Krónan 4- eða 5-deild. Aldin ber ………………. bjöllulyng (Vaccinium)
8. Blóm undirsætin. Krónan 5-deild. Aldin hýði eða steinaldin (berlíkt) …………… 9
9. Blóm krukkulaga. Aldin steinaldin eða hýði …………………………….. 10
9. Blóm ekki krukkulaga. Aldin hýði ……………………… sauðamergur (Loiseleuria)
10. Aldin rautt, berlíkt, steinaldin. Blöð öfugegglaga ………. sortulyng (Arctostaphylos)
10. Aldin hýði. Blöð aflöng …………………………………………… ljósalyng (Andromeda)

 

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