Umgangspestir og handþvottur

Skrifað um December 31, 2012 · in Almennt · 291 Comments

Áhrifaríkasta leiðin til þess að koma í veg fyrir smit er að þvo sér um hendur. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Áhrifaríkasta leiðin til þess að koma í veg fyrir smit er að þvo sér um hendur. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Í skammdeginu eru ýmsar umgangs-pestir í algleymingi, bæði af völdum gerla (baktería) og veirna. Ástæðan fyrir því er ekki að fullu þekkt, en líklegt er, að fólk hittist oftar og hafi meira samneyti en á öðrum árstíma; einnig geta varnir líkamans verið veikari um þessar mundir en ella.

Mikilvirkasta aðferðin við að koma í veg fyrir að smitast af slíkum pestum, er að þvo sér sem oftast og vel um hendur. Menn eiga að sápa sig minnst í 30 sekúndur og skola hendur síðan í rennandi vatni. Á almennings-salernum eiga menn helzt að nota fljótandi sápu og bréfaþurrkur.

Athuganir hafa sýnt, að handspritt er alls ekki jafn öflugt og réttur handþvottur. Ein algengasta veiran, sem veldur uppköstum og niðurgangi (calici-veira), þolir handsprittið.
Brezkar rannsóknir hafa sýnt, að á fjórðungi allra handa eru saurgerlar. Sömu gerlar eru líka á um 14% af öllum peningaseðlum og um 10% greiðslukorta.

Enda þótt flestir séu uggandi um að veikjast af pest, tengja fæstir óhreinar hendur við smit. Í könnun, sem var gerð á benzín-stöð í Bretlandi, sögðust 99% hafa þvegið sér um hendur eftir að hafa farið inn á salerni þar. Á hinn bóginn sýndi mælitæki, sem þar var komið fyrir, að einungis 32% karla höfðu þvegið sér og 64% kvenna.

Ekki er kunnugt um neina sambærilega könnun hérlendis, en líklegt er, að niðurstöður slíkrar könnunar yrðu í svipuðum dúr. Að vísu var fyrir nokkrum árum kannaður handþvottur meðal manna af ólíku þjóðerni í Harvard í Bandaríkjunum, þegar svínaflenzan var í algleymingi, og komu Bretar þar verst út.

Í einu grammi af saur eru um einn milljarður af um 100 mismunandi tegundum af gerlum og þeir geta lifað á húðinni í margar klukkustundir. Meðal þeirra eru varasömustu tegundir af sóttkveikjum.

Hér eru nokkur einföld ráð til þess að minnka líkur á því að sýkjast af umgangspest:
a) Þvo hendur sínar sem oftast, og ætíð fyrir matinn og eftir ferð á salerni.
b) Nota fljótandi sápu og pappírsþurrkur á almennings-salerni.
c) Forðast að neyta matar, þar sem margir koma að borðum (hlaðborð).
d) Heimsækja ekki fólk með óþægindi í maga.

 

 

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