Hvað er til ráða?

Skrifað um February 26, 2013 · in Almennt · 198 Comments

Escherichia coli.

Escherichia coli.

Láta mun nærri, að það séu tíu sinnum fleiri gerlafrumur (1014) í og á einum manni en líkamsfrumurnar (1013) sjálfar. Með öðrum orðum erum við gegnumsmogin af gerlum (bakteríum) og ekki bara af einni gerð, heldur munu það vera nálægt eitt þúsund tegundir. Þessar örsmáu lífverur gera sitt gagn á ótal mismunandi hátt, vinna vítamín úr fæðu, koma í veg fyrir sveppasýkingar, styrkja ónæmiskerfið og bæta meltinguna, svo að fátt eitt sé talið. Þá er stór hópur, sem hvorki veldur skaða né gerir gagn, að því menn bezt vita nú um stundir; en svo má ekki má loka augunum fyrir því, að margir gerlar valda þungærum sjúkdómum og hafa gert svo lengi sem elztu menn muna.

Ein algengasta tegundin tengd mönnum nefnist Escherichia coli, oft kölluð aðeins E. coli eða saurgerill. Hún er til í mörgum gerðum og í milljarða tali í þörmum manna, þar sem hún veldur jafnan engum skaða.

Escherichia coli er um 3 míkrómetrar á lengd. Teikn. ÁHB.

Escherichia coli er um 3 míkrómetrar á lengd. Teikn. ÁHB.


Á hinn bóginn er einn stofn þessa gerils, sem skotið hefur mönnum skelk í bringu á allra síðustu árum. Þessi stofn nefnist EHEC eða Enterohemorragisk Escherichia coli og er fyrra nafnið dregið af því, að hann veldur blóðugum niðurgangi. (Reyndar eru til að minnsta kosti fjórir aðrir stofnar, sem valda niðurgangi: ETEC EPEC EIEC EAEC.) Stofninn var uppgötvaður 1982 og hin síðari ár hefur hann valdið illvígum sjúkdómi, ekki sízt í börnum og gamalmennum. Þótt blóðugur niðurgangur sé slæmur, er hitt verra, að gerillinn gefur frá sér eiturefni, verotoxin, sem drepur frumur í nýrum, svo að þau verða óstarfhæf. Helzt er talið, að eitrið eyðileggi stoðkerfi í frumum. Sjúkdómurinn heitir hemolytiskt uremiskt syndrom, sem er skammstafað HUS og hefur leitt allmarga til dauða, meðal annars í Þýzkalandi og Svíþjóð fyrir tveimur árum. Ástæðan er fyrst og fremst sú, að gerlastofninn er ónæmur fyrir öllum sýklalyfjum. Hér á landi hafa nokkrir sýkzt en ekki kann eg að segja frá afdrifum þeirra. Um þetta má lesa á vef þessum:

http://www.landlaeknir.is/smit-og-sottvarnir/smitsjukdomar/sjukdomur/item12474/Enterohemoragisk-E–coli.
EHEC-stofn lifir í meltingarvegi kúa, kinda og geita án þess að valda þeim tjóni. Eitrið, sem gerlarnir gefa frá sér, miðast fyrst og fremst að því að drepa lítil frumdýr, sem nærast á gerlunum, hvort sem þau verða á vegi þeirra úti í náttúrunni eða í innyflum hýslanna. En það, sem gerzt hefur, er, að þessi tiltekni gerlastofn hefur myndað ónæmi gegn öllum þekktum sýklalyfjum. Hann hefur því lifað í umhverfi, þar sem þessum meðölum hefur óspart verið beitt. Genaraðir þessa stofns hafa ekki sést áður og hann hefur sinn eigin kóða, O104:H4. Stofninn hefur því ræktazt við óvenjulegar aðstæður og mun fjölga sér örar en aðrir.

Í Þýzkalandi er talið, að hann hafi borizt í menn með illa soðnu nautakjöti eða sennilegra hakki. Þá er vitað, að hann hefur fundizt í eplasíter, þar sem eplin höfðu áður atazt í kúamykju. Um fleiri smitleiðir getur verið að ræða.

Mergurinn málsins er sá, að með því að gefa húsdýrunum sýklalyf, koma fram ónæmir stofnar gerla, sem síðar geta sýkt menn. Í ljósi þessa hafa menn velt því alvarlega fyrir sér, hvort réttlætanlegt sé að meðhöndla húsdýr með sýklalyfjum, sem eru ætluð mönnum. Um þetta eru ærið skiptar skoðanir. En eitt er víst að öllu óbreyttu, og það er, að áður óþekktir, illvígir gerlastofnar muni breiðast út meðal manna með miklum hraða innan örfárra ára.

 

Ekki sakar að minna á, að bezta ráðið til þess að hliðra sér hjá gerlasjúkdómum, er að þvo sér oft um hendur (sjá hér).

Sjá ennfremur: http://www.vetenskapspedagogen.se/sv/node/22

ÁHB / 26.2. 2013

 

Leitarorð:

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