Horblaðka – Menyanthes trifoliata L. –

Skrifað um September 14, 2013 · in Flóra · 220 Comments

Á horblöðku eru krónufliparnir kögraðir. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Á horblöðku eru krónufliparnir kögraðir. Í þessu blómi eru fræflar mun styttri en stíllinn. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Horblöðkuætt – Menyanthaceae

Plöntur þær, sem teljast til horblöðkuættar (Menyanthaceae), heyrðu eitt sinn til maríuvandarættar (Gentianaceae). Þetta eru um 60 tegundir, sem skiptast á fimm ættkvíslir. Kvíslirnar Menyanthes (horblöðkur) og Nephrophyllidium vaxa aðeins á norðurhvelinu, Liparophyllum og Villarsia á suðurhveli en tegundir innan Nymphoides eru dreifðar um heiminn.

Til ættarinnar teljast fjölærar votlendisjurtir með stakstæð blöð á löngum legg, óskipt eða þrífingruð, sem vaxa upp af gildum jarðstöngli; axlarblöð eru engin. Nymphoides-tegundir hafa þó flotblöð; þá eru blöð á blómleggjum gagnstæð.
Blóm eru fimm-deild, tvíkynja, hvít eða gul. Samblaða króna, djúpklofin. Fræflar eru fimm og einn stíll. Aldin er hýði. Fræ hárlaus eða hærð á röndum.

Margar tegundir ættarinnar eru einkar vinsælar garð- og skrautplöntur; þannig hafa sumar þeirra dreifzt langt út fyrir upprunaleg heimkynni.

Horblöðkur – Menyanthes L.
Aðeins ein tegund telst til ættkvíslarinnar og því dugir lýsing á henni. – Ættkvíslarnafnið Menyanthes er komið úr grísku: menyein, augljós, anthos, blóm.

Horblaðka – Menyanthes trifoliata L. –

Blöð og blóm vaxa upp af gildum, skriðulum og löngum jarðstöngli, sem er ýmist jarðfastur eða á floti (sjá síðar). Plantan er fjölær og hárlaus og vex í alls konar votlendi, frá keldudrögum til tjarnarpolla, oft í stórum breiðum.
Blöðin eru slíðurfætt á löngum stilk og þrífingruð, með heilrend eða sjaldan gistennt, öfugegglaga, þykk smáblöð, 5-10 x 2-6 cm að stærð. Blómstöngull er skástæður, 10-40 cm hár, blaðlaus en með háblöðóttan blómklasa á endanum.

Klasinn er jafnan blómfár en þéttblóma. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Klasinn er jafnan blómfár en þéttblóma. Á óútsprungnum blómum sést rósrauður litur kónu að utanverðu; á neðsta blómi til hægri sést rauð-grænn litur bikars. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Blóm eru regluleg, 5-deild, um 3 cm að þvermáli, á stuttum leggjum (klasi). Bikar er djúpklofinn með rauðgræna, snubbótta flipa. Króna einnig djúpklofin, hvít með skeggþræði að innanverðu, ljósrauð að utanverðu. Fræflar eru fimm með dökkbrúna frjóknappa, fræva er ein en fræni þrískipt. Það er merkilegt með horblöðku, að stíll á frævu er mislangur. Í sumum blómum eru fræflar mun lengri en stíllinn en styttri í öðrum. Aldin er hýði með mörg fræ; fræin eru stór, gljáa með rauðgulan lit.

Vex í tjörnum, keldum, flóum og blautu votlendi um land allt. Blómgast um og eftir miðjan júní. 10-50 cm á hæð.

Auðþekkt planta og alkunn lækningajurt. Ber mörg nöfn, bæði á íslenzku og erlendum málum. Nöfn dregin af blöðum: remmublöð, mýrarhófur og þríblað; dregin af jarðstöngli: álftakólfur, mýrarkólfur, keldulaukur og nautatág; dregin af notum: reiðingsgras, þar sem hún var brúkuð í reiðinga, og nöfn dregin af lækningamætti: kveisugras og ólúagras.
Horblaðka þykir góð við skyrbjúgi, gulu, miltis- og lifrarveiki, vatnssótt, gikt og flestum meinum í kviðarholi (lífinu). Bæði var búið til seyði og te af rótum og blöðum. Í te er haft 1-2 g af þurrkuðum blöðum í stóran bolla með sjóðandi vatni. Þá þótti hún góð til hárþvotta og með njóla er te af henni gott við harðlífi.
Þar sem horblaðka vex í votlendi, er ávallt talið fært ríðandi mönnum.


Blöð voru fyrrum seld í apótekum undir nafninu trifolium aquaticum, trifolii fibrini folia og folium Menyanthis. Blöðum átti að safna, þegar plantan stóð í blóma og þurrka þau í skugga. Þurrkuð rót og möluð var á stundum höfð í stað mjöls annars staðar á Norðurlöndum. Tegundin er algeng alls staðar á Norðurlöndum og víðar í Evrópu, en vex einnig í Asíu og nyrzt í Norður-Ameríku.

Viðurnafnið trifoliata merkir þríblaða og er dregið af latnesku orðunum tres, þrír, og folium, blað.

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: bogbean, buckbean, beckbean, march trefoil, marsh clover, water shamrock, bog myrtle
Danska: Bukkeblad, Bitterkløver, Treblad
Norska: geitklauv, iglegras, stunggras, bukkegras, saltgras, saltblekkje, triblekkje, triblad, tristiklar, myrkong, myrkløver, beskekløver, blekk, groblokka
Sænska: vattenklöver, bläcken, kråkkfot, boskapsmissne, vattenväppling, munk-kål, getkål, klöfving, getklöfving, bläcken, korsbläcker, bockblad, torskblad og mäss
Finnska: raate
Þýzka: Bitterklee, Fieberklee, Biberklee, Dreiblättriger Fieberklee
Franska: trefle des marais, trèfle-d’eau, ményanthe trifolié

ÁHB / 14. sept. 2013

 

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