Krossjurtir – Melampyrum

Skrifað um August 24, 2016 · in Flóra · 314 Comments

engjakambjurt (1)

Engjakambjurt í Vaglaskógi 23. ágúst 2016. Ljósm. ÁHB.

 

Ættkvíslin krossjurtir – Melampyrum L. – heyrir nú til sníkjurótarættar – Orobanchaceae – ásamt um 90 öðrum kvíslum og samtals um 2000 tegundum. Aðrar innlendar kvíslir innan ættar eru Rhinanthus, Pedicularis, Euphrasia og Bartsia.

Fyrir ekki ýkja löngu töldust samtals sjö innlendar ættkvíslir til grímublómaættar – Scrophulariaceae – ásamt þremur slæðings-kvíslum. Allar þessar ættkvíslir hafa nú verið fluttar annað, nema efjugrös – Limosella – sem standa ein eftir innan grímublómaættar.

Til krossjurtia – Melampyrum L. – teljast um 35 tegundir, sem vaxa á tempruðum svæðum á norðurhveli jarðar. Allar tegundir eru svo kallaðar hálfsníkjuplöntur, það er að þær sækja vatn og næringu til annarra tegunda í næsta nágrenni, en geta þó lifað án þess. Rótarkerfi þeirra er mjög fíngert.

Plöntur eru einærar; stöngull uppréttur með gagnstæð, aflöng til lensulaga blöð, sem eru heilrend eða tennt við grunninn. Blóm eru í axi, ein eða tvö og tvö saman í blaðöxlum og vísa þá öll í sömu átt.

Bikar er fjór-skiptur. Króna er gul á íslenzkum tegundum en getur líka verið rauð; krónupípa er löng og varir einnig, efri vör með kili; enginn spori. Fræflar eru fjórir, tveir og tveir mislangir. Eitt fræni. Aldin er hýðisaldin með fá fræ.

Ættkvíslarnafnið Melampyrum er dregið af grísku orðunum ‘melas’, svartur og ‘pyros’, hveiti. Nafnið kemur þegar fyrir í riti Theofrastosar 300 f. Kr. Geta má þess, að allar tegundir kvíslarinnar verða svartar við þurrk.

 

Hér á landi vaxa tvær tegundir kvíslarinnar, krossjurt (M. sylvaticum) og engjakambjurt (M. pratense). Fyrr nefnda tegundin er löngu þekkt og vex á takmörkuðu svæði á Norð-Vesturlandi, en hin vex aðeins í Vaglaskógi í Fnjóskadal.

 

Forðabaggi

Á fræjum tegundanna er næringarríkt viðhengi, forðabaggi, sem er þrungið af fituefni og prótínum. Slíkir forðabaggar eru á fræjum allmargra plantna og nefnast elaiosom, dregið af grísku orðunum ‘élaion’ feiti, olía og ‘sóma’ hlutur, baggi. Þessir forðabaggar eru ýmislega að lögun og lit, og líkjast oft púpum skordýra.

Fræ af engjakambjurt. Teikn. ÁHB.

Fræ af engjakambjurt. Teikn. ÁHB.

Ýmsir maurar dragast að þessum forðaböggum, bera þá heim í bú sín og fæða lirfur sínar á þeim. Þegar lirfurnar hafa tæmt forðabaggana, bera maurarnir tóma bagga og fræin ásamt margs konar lífrænum úrgangi á afvikinn stað, þar sem fræið spírar.

Slík frædreifing nefnist »maura-dreifing« (myrmecochory) og er gott dæmi um þess háttar samlífi, sem nefnist samhjálp (mutualism), þar sem báðir aðilar hafa hag af samlífinu. Maurarnir fá næringu og fræin spíra í næringarríku umhverfi örlítið undir yfirborði í skjóli fyrir ýmsum fræætum í hópi fugla og lítilla spendýra.

 

Alls er óvíst, hvernig dreifingu tegundanna er háttað hér á landi, því að ekki er vitað um neina maura hérlendis, sem sinna þessu starfi.

 

 

 

Greiningarlykill að innlendum tegundum innan Melampyrum-kvíslar:

1 Króna jafnan skærgul, innan við 1 cm á lengd. Bikar á lengd við krónupípu. Tvö fræ í hýði .. krossjurt

1 Króna jafnan ljósgul, um 1,5 cm á lengd. Bikar styttri en krónupípa. Fjögur fræ í hýði .. engjakambjurt

 

 

Krossjurt – Melampyrum sylvaticum L.

Plantan er einær. Stöngull er uppréttur, oftast greinóttur og lítið hærður. Blöðin eru gagnstæð, heilrend, nærri stilklaus og mjólensulaga.

Blóm sitja í blaðöxlum, einstæð, stilklaus, en því þéttari sem ofar dregur, um 0,8(-10) mm á lengd. Bikar er fjór-skiptur, með útstæða flipa, á lengd við krónupípu. Krónan er dökkgul með opnu gini; neðri vör niðursveigð.

Aldin er hýði, lítið lengra en bikarflipar., oftast með tvö fræ. Fræin líkjast mjög púpum flugna.

 

Vex í birki-skóglendi og er víða á NV. Blómgast í júlí. 10–30 cm á hæð.

 

Er hálfgildings sníkjuplanta, því að hún dregur næringu úr rótum annarra plantna eins og fleiri tegundir ættarinnar.

Viðurnafnið sylvaticum er komið úr latínu, ‚silva‘ skógur.

ATH. Mynd af krossjurt var ekki tiltæk við vinnslu pistils.

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: Small Cow-wheat
Danska: Skov-Kohvede
Norska: småmarimjelle
Sænska: skogskovall, skogsskepling
Finnska: metsämaitikka
Þýzka: Wald-Wachtelweizen
Franska: Mélampyre des bois

 

 

 

 

Engjakambjurt – Melampyrum pratense L.

 

Plantan er einær. Stöngull er uppréttur, ýmist greindur eða ógreindur og lítið hærður. Blöðin eru gagnstæð, heilrend nema neðarlega gróftennt, nærri stilklaus og mjólensulaga.

Blóm sitja í blaðöxlum, einstæð, stilklaus, og vita öll í sömu átt, um 10-15 mm á lengd. Bikar er fjór-skiptur, með útstæða flipa, mun styttri en krónupípa. Krónupípan er ljósgul með skærgult gin; neðri vör bein.

Aldin er hýði, greinilega lengra en bikarflipar, oftast með fjögur fræ. Fræin líkjast mjög púpum flugna.

Vex í skóglendi, einkum undir birki en einnig í jaðri á furu- og greniskógi. Hefur aðeins fundizt í Vaglaskógi í Fnjóskadal. Á nokkrum stöðum vex tegundin í all stórum breiðum. Blómgast í júlí. 10–30 cm á hæð.

Er hálfgildings sníkjuplanta, því að hún dregur næringu úr rótum annarra plantna eins og fleiri tegundir ættarinnar. Í þýddum ritum koma fyrir nöfnin engjakambjurt og kúahveiti.

 

Viðurnafnið pratense er komið úr latínu, ‚pratum‘ engi.

 

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: common cow-wheat
Danska: Almindelig Kohvede
Norska: stormarimjelle
Sænska: ängskovall, kovall
Finnska: kangasmaitikka
Þýzka: Wiesen-Wachtelweizen
Franska: Mélampyre des prés

 

Engjakambjurt í Vaglaskógi 23. ágúst 2016. - Ljósm. ÁHB.

Engjakambjurt í Vaglaskógi 23. ágúst 2016. – Ljósm. ÁHB.

 

Að sinni skal engum getum leitt að því, hvernig engjakambjurtin er tilkomin í Vaglaskógi. Tegundin er einæringur, sem merkir, að hún vex upp að vori, blómgast, myndar fræ og visnar. Aðeins fræ lifir um veturinn. Það er því ljóst, að tegundin þarf að finna sér nýjan vaxtarstað á hverju vori. Dreifing á fræi að hausti er því mikilvægt atriði; fræið þarf að geymast óskemmt um veturinn og ná að spíra snemma, enda eru einæringar yfirleitt ekki harðir af sér í samkeppni nema tíðarfar sé þeim mun hagstæðara. Almennt séð er mikil gróska í gömlum gróðurfélögum þeim ekki hliðholl. Verulega skiptir máli, hve fræforði geymist lengi í jarðvegi. Stofnstærð einæringa getur verið verulega misjöfn frá ári til árs.

Rétt er, að fram komi eftirfarandi. Um miðjan áttunda áratug síðustu aldar var Ísleifur Sumarliðason, skógarvörður á Vöglum í Fnjóskadal, staddur á heimili foreldra minna í Reykjavík. Hann hafði þá orð á því, að fundizt hafi planta með gul blóm í skóginum, sem menn þekktu ekki. Eftir því sem mér skildist þá óx hún í þéttum birkiskógi nokkuð ofan við gróðrarstöðina. – Næst gerist það, að við feðgar erum saman í Vaglaskógi í ágúst 1981. Kemur okkur þá í hug að leita að þessari plöntutegund. Þar sem Ísleifur var nú fluttur til Akureyrar höfðum við ekki samband við hann. Gengum við nokkuð lengi um skóginn, þar sem við álitum tegundina vaxa eftir ábendingu Ísleifs. Því miður fundum við hana ekki.

Síðan er það Eggert Pétursson, sem fann tegundina 1988 og greinir Herði Kristinssyni frá því. Hörður áleit þetta vera krossjurt. Það var ekki fyrr en sumarið 2016, þegar Jón Baldur Hlíðberg, teiknari, var að mála mynd eftir eintaki úr Vaglaskógi, að í ljós kom, að um aðra tegund var að ræða.

Ósennilegt er, að tegundin sé gömul í landinu. Mjög margir grasafróðir menn hafa farið um Vaglaskóg á öllum tímum árs og er það með ólíkindum, að hún hafi farið fram hjá þeim. Meðal annars má nefna Helga Hallgrímsson, sem fór margar ferðir um mörg ár síðla sumars í leit að sveppum. Líklegt er, að tegundin hafi slæðzt hingað til lands í sambandi við rekstur gróðrarstöðvar Skógræktar ríkisins í fjölda ára.

 

ÁHB / 24. ágúst 2016.

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