Fjallasmári – Sibbaldia procumbens

Skrifað um May 7, 2013 · in Flóra · 89 Comments

Fjallasmári vex einkum til fjalla í snjódældum. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Fjallasmári vex einkum til fjalla í snjódældum. Ljósm. ÁHB.


Heiðasmárar – Sibbaldia

Fjallasmári er í ættkvíslinni heiðasmárar (Sibbaldia L.), sem telst til rósaættar (Rosaceae). Það eru á milli tíu og tuttugu tegundir aðrar, sem teljast til kvíslarinnar og vaxa flestar í fjöllum í Asíu. Í Evrópu eru aðeins tvær tegundir, S. procumbens L. og S. parviflora Willd., og aðeins hin fyrr nefnda á Norðurlöndum.
Þetta eru fjölærar, lágvaxnar tegundir með trékenndan jarðstöngul. Blöðin eru jafnan stofnstæð, langleggjuð og þrífingruð; hvert smáblað er þrítennt í endann. Blóm eru í þéttum skúfum, tvíkynja og fremur smá. Bikar með utanbikarblöð. Krónublöð eru fimm, gul og styttri en bikarblöðin. Fræflar eru jafnan fimm og fræva er undirsætin. Aldinið er hneta.
Ættkvíslarnafnið Sibbaldia er til heiðurs skozka lækninum Robert Sibbald (1641-1722), sem var prófessor í Edinborg. Hann lagði ásamt öðrum grunn að grasagarðinum þar í borg, sem var ætlað fyrst og fremst að rækta lækningaplöntur. Þá má geta þess, að hann lýsti fyrstur manna steypireyð á vísindalegan hátt og af því tilefni var hún í fyrstu nefnd Sibbaldus honum til heiðurs.

 

Fjallasmári – Sibbaldia procumbens L.
Jarðstöngull er trékenndur og grófur, enda er plantan fjölær. Niður úr honum gengur digur stólparót. Stofnblöðin eru stilklöng, grágræn og þrífingruð. Smáblöðin eru hærð, egglaga með fleyglaga grunn og þrítennt í endann. Axlarblöð eru stór.
Blómstönglar eru oft margir saman, blaðfáir og taka oft að vaxa að lokinni blómgun. Blóm eru smá (5-7 mm að þvermáli), regluleg í þéttum skúfum; krónublöð eru fimm, grængul til gulhvít, egglaga, snubbótt og styttri en bikarblöð. Bikar er hærður, bjöllulaga; utanbikarblöð mjó, bikarblöð lensulaga. Fræflar eru fimm að tölu og frævur oftast tíu en geta þó verið bæði færri og miklu fleiri. Aldin er gljáandi hneta.

Fjallasmári er auðþekktur á þrífingruðum blöðum, þar sem hvert smáblað er þrítennt í endann. Teikn. ÁHB.

Fjallasmári er auðþekktur á þrífingruðum blöðum, þar sem hvert smáblað er þrítennt í endann. Teikn. ÁHB.

Vex í snjódældum til fjalla og á útnesjum. Algengur um land allt. Blómgast í júní. 5-15 cm á hæð.

Tegundin hefur verið nefnd heiðasmári og sibbaldsurt. Að mörgu leyti líkist tegundin bæði döggblöðkum (Alchemilla) og murum (Potentilla), þó að mörg einkenni skilji þessar tegundir að. Auðveldast er að þekkja hana á þrítenntum smáblöðum. Þetta er hánorræn tegund. Blöð hennar má nota í te.
Viðurnafnið procumbens merkir jarðlægur, og er þar átt við vaxtarlag plöntunnar.

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: sibbaldia, creeping sibbaldia.
Danska: Trefingerurt
Norska: trefingerurt
Sænska: dvärgfingerört, sibbalds-ört
Finnska: närvänä
Þýzka: Alpen-Gelbling
Franska: sibbaldie couchée, sibbaldie à tiges couchées

ÁHB / 7. maí 2013

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