Er mjólk óholl? Rannsókn bendir til þess

Skrifað um November 2, 2014 · in Almennt · 685 Comments


Flestir eru aldir upp við það, að mjólk sé holl. Enda er það svo, að í henni eru flest lífsnauðsynleg næringarefni, meðal annars þau, sem eru ómissandi fyrir beinagrind, eins og kalsíum, fosfór og D-vítamín.

Nú hefur á hinn bóginn birzt grein í læknatímaritinu British Medical Journal, þar sem niðurstöður viðamikillar rannsóknar benda eindregið til þess, að mjólk sé alls ekki holl fólki, sem komið er af barnsaldri.

Rannsóknin var gerð á 110‘000 miðaldra mönnum, bæði konum og körlum, í Svíþjóð. Konurnar voru spurðar tvisvar sinnum, en karlar einu sinni, um matar- og drykkjarvenjur sínar. Allir voru við góða heilsu, þegar athugunin hófst.

Á þeim rúmum 20 árum, sem rannsóknin stóð, voru beinbrot miklu algengari meðal kvenna, sem drukku þrjú eða fleiri glös af mjólk hvern dag heldur en hinna, sem drukku mest eitt mjólkurglas á dag. Meðal karla voru beinbrot óháð fjölda mjólkurglasa á dag, en ekki var fylgzt með þeim nema í ellefu ár.

Niðurstöðurnar benda því alls ekki til þess, að mjólkurþamb styrki bein, þrátt fyrir að mjólk sé rík af kalsíum og D-vítamíni.

Hins vegar kom það fræðimönnum verulega á óvart, að mikil mjólkurdrykkja styttir verulega ævi fólks. Einkum virtist mjólkurslok bitna harðast á konum. Dánartíðni meðal kvenna, sem drukku þrjú eða fleiri glös mjólkur á dag, var tvisvar sinnum hærri en meðal þeirra, sem létu sér nægja mest eitt glas af mjólk á degi hverjum.

Þá vakti það eftirtekt, að það fannst ekkert samband á milli mikillrar neyzlu á osti eða unnum mjólkurafurðum (til dæmis jógurt) og beinbrota eða hærri dánartíðni; miklu heldur þveröfugt.

Á þessu kunna menn engar viðhlítandi skýringar, en leiða má getum að því, að í óunninni mjólk er styrkur laktósa (mjólkursykurs) mjög mikill. Sem kunnugt er, er laktósi tvísykra, gerður úr einsykrunum glúkósa og galaktósa. Við meltingu brotnar laktósi niður í þessar tvær einsykrur, og það er kunnugt úr rannsóknum á dýrum, að galaktósi veldur öldrun og ótímabærum dauða.

Í blóðsýnum fólks, sem drakk mikla mjólk, reyndust vera há gildi vissra efna, sem orsaka bólgur og svo kallaða „oxunar-streitu“. Hjá því fólki, sem át mikið af osti og jógúrt, mældist engin hækkun á þeim efnum.

 

Karl Michaëlsson, prófessor í háskólanum í Uppsölum, sem er einn af höfundum þessarar ritgerðar, tekur þó mjög skýrt fram, að nauðsynlegt sé að rannsaka áhrif mjólkur á menn mun ítarlegar. Enn er margt, sem þarf að rannsaka betur, en engu að síður gefa þessar niðurstöður tilefni til þess að gaumgæfa, hvort mjólk sé varhugaverð fyrir fólk, sem er komið af léttasta skeiði. Aðrar rannsóknir hafa leitt í ljós, að karlmönnum, sem drekka um tvo lítra af mjólk hvern dag í langan tíma, er hættara við en öðrum að fá krabbamein í blöðruhálskirtil.

 

Ritgerðina í heild er hægt að lesa hér: http://www.bmj.com/cgi/doi/10.1136/bmj.g6015

 

ÁHB / 2. nóvember 2014

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