Brönugrasaætt – Orchidaceae

Skrifað um July 3, 2014 · in Flóra · 246 Comments

Phalaenopsis (munnagrös) er ættkvísl innan brönugrasaættar með um 60 tegundir. Að auki hafa verið framleidd ótal yrki og kynblendingar, sem hafa reynzt frekar auðveld í ræktun. Ættkvíslin hefur því notið vinsælda og náð mikilli útbreiðslu meðal áhugamanna hin síðari ár.

Phalaenopsis (munnagrös) er ættkvísl innan brönugrasaættar með um 60 tegundir. Að auki hafa verið framleidd ótal yrki og kynblendingar, sem hafa reynzt frekar auðveld í ræktun. Ættkvíslin hefur því notið vinsælda og náð mikilli útbreiðslu sem stofublóm meðal áhugamanna hin síðari ár. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Brönugrasaætt er önnur af tveimur stærstu ættum í plönturíkinu með um 22 til 26 þúsund tegundir. Hin ættin er körfublómaætt (Asteraceae (Compositae)) með um 23 þúsund tegundir. Tegundirnar, sem eru 6-11% af heildarfjölda fræplantna, skiptast á um 880 ættkvíslir. Innan ættarinnar eru um tvöfalt fleiri tegundir en meðal fugla og fjórum sinnum fleiri en tegundir spendýra. Stærstu ættkvíslirnar eru Bulbophyllum (2000 teg.), Epidendrum (1500 teg.), Dendrobium (1400 teg.) og Pleurothallis (1000 teg.). Þá má geta þess, að garðyrkjumenn hafa fengið fram um 100 þúsund kynblendinga og yrki á undanförnum árum.

Ástæða fyrir því, að fjöldi tegunda er ekki þekktur betur en þetta, er meðal annars sú, að mörgum tegundum hefur verið lýst oftar en einu sinni undir ólíkum nöfnum, jafnvel með hundrað ára millibili.
Latneskt heiti ættarinnar er dregið af gríska orðinu ‘orkhis’, sem merkir eista, en rætur margra tegunda minna óneitanlega á það líffæri. Í íslenzkri þjóðtrú hefur löngum verið sú trúa á brönugrösum, að þau séu góð til ásta. Í goðafræði Forn-Grikkja er sagt frá því, hvernig brönugrös urðu til. Sonur skógarguðsins Patellusar var drepinn á einu Bakkusarblóti vegna þess, að hann hafði svívirt hofgyðju eina. Faðir hans lagðist á bæn og óskaði sér þess, að drengur risi upp, en þá spruttu brönugrös upp af blóði hans.
Á ýmsum erlendum málum eru brönugrös nefnd Satyrion eftir grísku vættunum, sem lögðu plönturnar sér til munns og stunduðu óhóflegt líferni.

Tegundir ættarinnar vaxa nánast um allan heim, frá jöklum til hitabeltis, þar sem þær eru ríkulegastar, í Asíu og Suður-Ameríku, en einnig í Mið-Ameríku. Í rökum skógum hitabeltis í um 2 til 3 km hæð í fjöllum er þéttleiki þeirra mestur. Flestar tegundir eru ásætur í krónum trjánna, þar sem er skuggsýnt, heitt og rakt. Í skógum Suður-Ameríku og Indónesíu er unnt að finna á milli 50 og 100 ólíkar tegundir á svæði, sem er á stærð við fótboltavöll.

Áður var ættinni skipt í þrjár undirættir (Neottioideae, Epidendroideae og Orchidoideae) en nú er henni skipt í eftirtaldar fimm undirættir:
a) Apostasioideae: 2 ættkvíslir og 16 tegundir, vex í suð-vestur Asíu.
b) Cypripedioideae: 5 ættkvíslir og 130 tegundir, vex í tempruðu beltunum, en einnig í hitabelti Ameríku og Asíu.
c) Vanilloideae: 15 ættkvíslir og 180 tegundir, vex á rökum stöðum í hitabeltinu og á heittempruðum svæðum, einnig í austanverðri Norður-Ameríku.
d) Epidendroideae: fleiri en 500 ættkvíslir og um 20’000 tegundir, vex um allan heim.
e) Orchidoideae: 208 ættkvíslir og 3630 tegundir, vex um allan heim.

Útlit
Eins og áður segir eru flestar tegundir ásætur (epifyter), aðrar vaxa á lítt grónum klöppum, eru vafningsplöntur, lifa í vatni og ein tegund í Ástralíu ver öllu vaxtarskeiði sínu neðanjarðar. Vaxtarlag þeirra er vitnisburður um, hversu mjög þær hafa lagað sig að aðstæðum.
Tegundir ættarinnar eru frá örfáum millímetrum til allmargra metra. Nokkrar þeirra mynda þústir, sem eru fleiri hundruð kílógrömm að þyngd, en hin stærsta (Grammatophyllum speciosum) getur vegið allt að tveimur tonnum. Sjá: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatophyllum_speciosum

Tegundir brönugrasaættar eru allar fjölærar. Margar hafa jarðstöngul, sem næringarforði safnast í, en aðrar tegundir, meðal annars íslenzku brönugrösin, hafa forðarætur, nema kræklurót. Þá eru loftrætur algengar meðal ásætu-tegunda. Loftrætur eru jafnan mjög langar, þykkar og lítið greinóttar. Oftast eru þær hvítar á lit en á stundum grænar. Á þær plöntur vantar jafnan blöð og þá sjá ræturnar um framleiðslu á lífrænum næringarefnum.
Á sumum tegundum ættarinnar má sjá þykkildi á stöngli. Þau líkjast laukum eða hnúðum en eru þó hvorugt. Hlutverk þykkildanna er að safna í sig vatni og næringarefnum. Á þurrkatíma rýrna þykkildin mjög og hverfa næstum alveg, en á góðviðrisköflum þrútna þau og verða stór og hörð.

Blóm
Blóm innan ættarinnar eru mjög sérstök. Þau eru tvíkynja, mjög óregluleg og yfirsætin. Á stundum eru þau einstæð en eru þó oftar í sérstökum blómskipunum, axi eða klasa. Lengstu blómskipanir eru um 5 metrar á lengd með hundruðum blóma.

Blóm á tegundum brönugrasaættar minna um margt á liljublóm. Einstakir hlutar blómsins eru og hinir sömu, þó að þeir séu á stundum verulega ummyndaðir eða jafnvel horfnir. Blómhlífarblöðin skiptast ekki í bikar- og krónublöð, heldur eru þau öll eins (kallast þá tepals), samtals sex að tölu, þrjú ytri og þrjú innri. Á liljum eru þessi blómhlífarblöð öll nærri eins. Á tegundum brönugrasa er mikill munur á hinum ytri og innri með tilliti til litar, lögunar og stærðar. Eitt af innri blöðunum er ummyndað í vör og er hún oft með spora, sem inniheldur blómasykur (nektar). Vörinni er á stundum skipt í innvör (hypochilen) og útvör (epichilen) eins og hjá kossablómum (Epipactis) og frúargrösum (Cephalanthera). Í raun ætti vörin að vísa upp. En á þróunarbrautinni hefur blómið snúizt hálfan hring við snúning á blómstilk eða frævu. Á sumum tegundum vísar vörin reyndar upp, en þá hefur blómið snúizt heilan hring.

Karlkynfæri – öðru nafni fræflar – eru sex að tölu á lilju-plöntum. Í brönugrasaættinni er oftast aðeins einn eða á stundum tveir dugandi fræflar. Hinir, 4 eða 5 eftir atvikum, eru annaðhvort horfnir alveg eða sést móta fyrir þeim (geldfræflar). Fræva – kvenkynfæri – er gerð úr þremur fræblöðum og skiptist í eggleg, stíl og fræni. Oftast eru það aðeins tvö fræni, sem eru virk, en stíll og fræni eru samvaxin fræblöðunum og mynda svo nefnda stílstoð (gynostemium). Þriðja frænið er ummyndað í litla trjónu (rostellum), sem kemur í veg fyrir, að frjókorn falli niður á fræni í eigin blómi. Á stundum er frænistrjónan límug og stuðlar að því, að frjókekkirnir límast á skordýr. Í flestum tegundum mynda frjókornin kekki (pollinium). Þessir frjókornakekkir eru mismargir, 2 til 8, í hverju blómi. Kekkirnir eru inni í tveimur hólfum í frjóknappinum. Frjókornakekkirnir eru breytilegir að útliti, en á flestum er límflaga (vicidium) á enda þeirra, sem festir þá við dýrið, sem sinnir frævuninni. Á sumum brönugrösum er límflaga á trjónunni. Límflögurnar eru á stundum óvarðar eins og hjá Gymnadenia (mjósporajurtum) eða í litlum, vatnsfylltum sekk eins og hjá Orchis (orkídeur) og Dactylorhiza (brönugrösum, munaðargrösum).

Tegundin Cypripedium calceolus (gyðjuskór), og aðrar skyldar, eru að því leyti frábrugðnar, að frjókornin mynda ekki kekki, heldur eru þau í tveimur, mjúkum hnoðrum. Þá eru ávallt tveir fræflar fullþroskaðir en ekki bara einn.
Frævun
Það, sem er sérkennilegast við brönugrös, er, hvernig frævunin fer fram. En með orðinu frævun er átt við færslu frjókorna yfir á fræni á kvenkynhirzlunni. Frævun getur orðið með tvennum hætti:

a) aðfrævun, þá berast frjókorn úr einu blómi á annað. Séu bæði blóm á sömu plöntu nefnist það heimafrævun, og
b) sjálffrævun, en þá berast frjókorn á fræni í sama blómi.

Aðfrævun er algengust og sér í lagi meðal brönugrasaættar. Oftast eru það skordýr, sem bera frjókorn á milli blóma, en í hitabeltinu sinna fuglar frævuninni einnig. Þá er sjálffrævun einnig þekkt meðal brönugrasaættar, eins og hjá kræklurót.

Mörg dæmi eru um það, að bygging blóma hæfir aðeins einni tegund skordýra eða örfáum. Séu skordýr, sem glepjast í blóm á Cypripedium calceolus (gyðjuskó) í stærri kantinum, komast þau ekki upp og verða til þar. Ophrys insectifera (flugublóm) gefur frá sér ilmefni, sem laðar að eðlunarfúsan karlgeitung; í Epipactis palustris (hlínarvör) kastast skordýrið fram á við og rekst í frjókornin; og í eggtvíblöðku hvellspringur trjónan eins og lýst er síðar.

Flest skordýr sækja blóm heim til þess að ná sér í fæðu, en um leið stuðla þau að frævun. Í flestum blómum er það blómasykur (nektar), sem skordýrunum stendur til boða sem fæða, en þó munu vefjatjásur finnast í stöku blómi. Það, sem einkum dregur skordýr að blómum, er litur og litasamsetning blómhlífarblaða, en einnig lykt. Blóm lykta mismunandi og sum lykta að nóttu en önnur að degi til. Lítið er vitað um, hvernig frævun fer fram meðal íslenzkra tegunda. Á hinn bóginn er meginregla, að því norðar á hnettinum, þeim mun algengara er, að plönturnar séu sjálffrævandi.

Fræ brönugrasa eru mjög lítil; hið minnsta vegur 0,000008 g.

Hér fer á eftir lykill að innlendum ættkvíslum eða tegundum:

 

1. Brúnar til hvítleitar, laufgrænulausar jurtir án blaða; blóm grængul í gisnum klasa ……. kræklurót (Corallorhiza trifida)
1. Grænar jurtir með venjuleg laufblöð ………….. 2

2. Blóm með greinilegan spora …………. 3
2. Blóm sporalaus ……………………. tvíblöðkur (Neottia, syn. Listera)

3. Blóm fjólublá eða rauðblá. Blöð oftast með dökkum blettum ………….. brönugrös (Dactylorhiza)
3. Blóm gulgræn, hvít eða rauðmóleit ………………………….. 4

4. Vör heil. Forðarætur ógreindar …………. friggjargras (Platanthera hyperborea)
4. Vör skert. Forðarætur djúpklofnar ……………… 5

5. Blóm hvít eða gulhvít; vör þríflipuð (miðflipinn stærstur). Blöð breiðust ofan miðju ….. hjónagras (Pseudorchis albida)
5. Blóm gulgræn eða rauðmóleit; vör þrítennt (miðtönn stytzt). Blöð breiðust um miðju ……. barnarót (Coeloglossum viride)

 

ÁHB / 3. júlí 2014
P.s. Höfundur hlaut styrk frá Hagþenki 2014 til ritstarfa.

Helztu heimildir:
S. Nilsson og B. Mossberg, 1977: Nordens orkideer. Gyldendals grönne håndböger.
Stefán Stefánsson, 1948: Flóra Íslands. 3. útg. Akureyri.
Áskell Löve, 1981: Áslenzk ferðaflóra. 2. útg. Almenna bókafélagið, Rvík.
Johannes Lid og Dagny Tande Lid, 2005: Norsk flora. 7. utgåva. Redaktör: Reidar Elven. – Det Norske Samlaget. Oslo.
Perschke, T. (2006): Status gefährdeter Orchideen des baltisch-fennoskandinavischen Raums. – J. Eur. Orch 38 (4): 717-798.
Reinhard, H. R. (1985): Skandinavische und alpine Dactylorhiza-Arten (Orchidaceae). – Mitt. Bl. Arbeitskr. Heim. Orch. Baden-Württ. 17 (3): 321-416.
Reinhard, H. R. (1990): Kritische Anmerkungen zu einigen Dactylorhiza-Arten (Orchidaceae) Europas. – Mitt. Bl. Arbeitskr. Heim. Orch. Baden-Württ. 22 (1): 1-72.
Reinhard, H. R., P. Gölz, R. Peter & H. Wildermuth (1991): Die Orchideen der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete. – Fotorotar; ISBN 3-905647-01-0.

Netheimildir ýmsar:
http://www.efloras.org/
http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/welcome.html
http://lup.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=548374&fileOId=1176457

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