Bláliljur – Mertensia — ostrur norðurhjarans

Skrifað um November 5, 2012 · in Flóra · 98 Comments

 

Blóm á blálilju þykja ffögur. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Blóm á blálilju þykja fögur. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Ættkvíslin Mertensia A. W. Roth er innan munablómsættar (Boraginaceae; sjá síðar). Til kvíslarinnar teljast um 45 tegundir. Þetta eru fjölærar jurtir, jafnan blágrænar að lit; oftast hárlausar eða hærðar á neðra borði blaða. Stönglar jafnan margir frá trékenndum jarðstöngli, jarðlægir eða uppréttir. Blöðin eru gisstæð, ketkennd, egglaga til lensulaga eða oddbaugótt, ydd eða snubbótt; á efra borði eru smáir nabbar. Efri blöð stilklaus en hin neðri á stuttum, vængjuðum stilk.
Blóm í blöðóttum klösum. Bikar fimmskiptur, klofinn nær niður. Króna fimmskipt, bjöllulaga. Aldin er klofaaldin úr einni frævu, sem er heilt í fyrstu en klofnar í sundur. þegar það er fullþroska, í deilaldin (klofninga) í jafnmarga (eða helmingi fleiri) hluta og frævan var samsett úr af fræblöðum: hneturnar fyrst ketkenndar en verða við þroskun pappírskenndar.

Nafnið Mertensia er til heiðurs þýzkum guðfræðingi, Franz Karl Mertens (1764-1831), sem var náinn vinur nafnhöfundar, þýzka grasafræðingsins Albrecht Wilhelm Roth (1757–1834). Mertens lagði stund á grasafræði í öllum tómstundum og ferðuðust þeir Roth saman til þess að rannsaka plöntur um nær alla Evrópu. Mertens hafði mikinn áhuga á þörungum og lýsti nokkrum tegundum. Þá stóð hann að þriðju útgáfu á hinni þekktu Þýzkalandsflóru eftir Johann Christoph Röhling ásamt Wilhelm Daniel Joseph Koch (1771–1849), prófessor.

Aðeins ein tegund telst til íslenzku flórunnar, en allnokkrar eru ræktaðar hér í görðum. Má þar nefna síberíublálilju (M. sibirica (L.) G. Don), vængjablálilju (M. pterocarpa (Turczaninow) Tatewaki & Ohwi) og dvergblálilju (M. echioides (Benth.) Benth. & Hook. f.).

BláliljaMertensia maritima (L.) S. F. Gray

Upp af trénuðum jarðstöngli vaxa jafnan margir stönglar, jarðlægir og greinóttir. Blöðin eru gisstæð, ketkennd, gráblá eða blágræn, öfugegglaga eða oddbaugótt, geta verið spaðalaga, snubbótt eða ydd; á efra borði eru smáir nabbar, svo að blöðin hafa mattan gljáa. Blágrái liturinn stafar af vaxlagi. Efri blöð stilklaus en hin neðri á stuttum, breiðum og vængjuðum stilk; á efra borði eru smáir nabbar, fylltir kalki. Klasar blöðóttir. Bikarflipar breiðegglaga. Krónuginið samanherpt. Króna er fimm-deild, bjöllulaga; ljósrauð oft í fyrstu með bláar æðar en verður síðan blá.

Tegundinni hefur verið skipt í þrjár undirtegundir: ssp. maritima, ssp. tenella Th. Fr. og ssp. asiatica Takeda.

Vex aðeins í sandi rétt ofan við flæðarmál. Viðurnafnið maritima er dregið af latneska orðinu mar, haf, sjór. Algeng um land allt. Blómgast í júní. Liggjandi stönglar geta orðið meira en 50 cm á lengd.

Blálilja vex aðeins með ströndum fram, í möl og sandi. Ljósm. ÁHB

Blálilja vex aðeins með ströndum fram, í möl og sandi. Ljósm. ÁHB

Blálilja vex víða í Suður-Noregi, en er algeng í Norður-Noregi. Þá er hún algeng á Svalbarða og Jan Mayen. Hún er friðlýst í Danmörku og jafnvel útdauð þar. Í Svíþjóð er hún sjaldgæf. Í Norður-Ameríku er hún talin fremur sjaldséð nema á vissum svæðum. Þá vex hún á Grænlandi og Kolaskaga. Hún hefur horfið af stórum svæðum á Bretlandseyjum og vex nú aðeins í Skotlandi.

Allir hlutar plöntunnar eru ætir. Stappaðar rætur soðnar í mjólk þykja holl og góð fæða. Seyði af blöðum var talið gott bæði við hjartveiki og brjóstveiki. Blöðin bragðast sem ostrur og eru algeng nöfn á öðrum málum af því dregin. Blöðin eru mjög góð, bæði hrá og soðin, sem sallat og má hafa þau bæði með fiski og líka á ís-réttum ásamt berjum. Mér vitanlega hefur engum íslenzkum kokki hugkvæmzt að nota blöð af þessari tegund. Ef vel tekst til ætti að vera hægt að gera sér mat úr þessu sem sér-íslenzku hnossgæti.

 

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: Oysterleaf, Oysterplant, Sea lungwort. Seaside mertensia, Sea mertensia, Seaside bluebell, Seaside lungwort
Danska: Hestetunga
Norska: østersurt
Sænska: ostronört
Finnska: halikka
Þýzka: Austernpflanze
Franska: mertensie maritime, pulmonaire de Virginie, sanguine de mer ou en anglais

Samnefni:
Pulmonaria maritima L.
Cerinthodes maritimum (L.) Kuntze
Lithospermum maritimum (L.) Lehm
Mertensia parviflora G. Don
Stenhammaria maritima (L.) Rchb.

 

ÁHB / 5.11. 2012

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