Apablóm – Erythranthe (syn. Mimulus)

Skrifað um July 26, 2017 · in Flóra · 185 Comments

Apablóm. Myndin er tekin í Eyjafirði. - Ljósm. Jón Kristófer Arnarson.

Apablóm. Myndin er tekin í Eyjafirði. – Ljósm. Jón Kristófer Arnarson.

Ættkvíslin apablóm Erythranthe Spach hefur lengstum verið talin til Mimulus L., en nýverið voru allmargar tegundir fluttar í kvíslina Erythranthe samkvæmt ítarlegum rannsóknum. Áður töldust um 150 tegundir til Mimulus en nú eru þar aðeins sjö eftir. Sagan hér að baki er löng og verður ekki farið út í þá sálma hér.
Í annan stað var ættkvíslin talin til grímublómaættar, Scrophulariaceae, en nú hefur ættkvíslin verið flutt í trúðablómsætt eða apablómaætt, Phrymaceae. Til þeirrar ættar teljast nú 13 ættkvíslir.

Innan ættkvíslar Erythranthe er margbreytileiki mikill, en öllum tegundum, um 111 að tölu, er það sameiginlegt, að lega fræsætis er miðlæg og blómleggir langir. Sumar tegundir eru einærar en aðrar fjölærar. Í sumum tegundum myndast ilmefni í ríkum mæli, einkum moskusilmur enda eru sumar tegundir nefndar »musk-flowers« á ensku. Stöngull og blöð eru ýmist hærð eða hárlaus, þó oftar klædd kirtilhárum. Blöð eru aflöng, spobaugótt eða egglaga, tennt. Blómstilkar verða lengri en bikar við aldinþroskun. Blóm eru stór, 8-42 mm, oft rauð, blárauð, bleik eða hvít, sjaldan gul. Sum blóm þykja minna á ásjónu apa og því oft nefnd »monkey’s face« á ensku.

Flestar tegundir kvíslar vaxa í mjög rökum jarðvegi og jafnvel í grunnu vatni. Þær þola ekki vel þurrk, en lifa þó allt frá sjávarmáli upp í hæstu hæðir.

Meira en 80% tegunda vex í vestanverðri Norður-Ameríku, en einnig í Kaliforníu, Alaska, British Columbíu, Nevada, Utah, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona og Nýju Mexíkó, einnig að litlum hluta í Kanada og Suður-Ameríku. Einnig eru fáeinar tegundir í Asíu, Afríku og Ástralíu.

Ættkvíslarnafnið Erythranthe er komið úr grísku, ‘erythros’, rauður og ‘anthos’, blóm. Nafnið Mimulus er dregið af gríska orðinu ‘mimos’, eftirherma, einmitt vegna þess, hve blóm líkjast snoppu apa.

Allnokkrar tegundir þessarar ættkvíslar eru ræktaðar í görðum. Þær eru flestar með rauðlit blóm nema tvær, E. guttate og E. lutea. Erfitt getur verið að aðgreina þær, en hin síðar nefnda er án kirtilhára og dílar á krónublöðum ná yfir mun stærra svæði. Þá æxlast þær auðveldlega hvor með annarri. Líklegt er þó, að hin fyrr nefnda sé mun algengari og er henni einni því lýst hér.

 

 

Apablóm – Erythranthe guttata (Fisch. ex DC.) G.L.Nesom (syn. Mimulus guttatus DC.)

Apablóm. – Heimild: Top Jabot at Wikispecies

Apablóm. – Heimild: Top Jabot at Wikispecies

Apablóm er 15-30 cm há, fjölær jurt, sem dreifir sér með skriðulum ofanjarðar-renglum. Stöngull er hárlaus neðst en með mörg kirtilhár ofarlega og á blómleggjum. Blöð eru gagnstæð, breið-egglaga, 5-7 cm á lengd, með gisnar og grófar tennur, hárlaus. Blóm eru stór, óregluleg, sitja á mislöngum stilkum, 12-25 mm á lengd úr efstu blaðöxlum, í stuttum klasa, fimm eða fleiri blóm. Bikar er 5-deildur, grænn, samblaða, 15-20 mm langur, og er efsta bikartönn breiðari og lengri en aðrar. Varaskipt króna er gul með rauðar dröfnur á þrískiptri neðri vör, 2-4 cm á lengd, pípulaga neðst og kraginn breiðir úr sér efst, allt að 3 cm á breidd; efri vör er tvískipt. Gin er þar sem pípa og kragi mætast, og er það nærri lokað.

Apablóm er mjög breytileg og tegundlýsingar eru að sama skapi mjög mismunandi. Sumir segja apablóm einært en aðrir fjölært.

Tegundin þykir mjög heppileg til rannsókna og hefur mikið verið notuð við alls konar athuganir í erfðafræði.

Apablóm var flutt inn sem garðplanta en hefur víða slæzt út fyrir og þrífst vel í vætu á þó nokkrum stöðum í landinu.

 

Viðurnafnið ‘guttata’ er komið úr latínu ‘gutta’, dropi og merkir dropóttur eða dílóttur og er þar átt við rauða depla inni í krónu.

Apablóm í skurði neðan við bæinn Brunná í Saurbæjarhreppi, Dalasýslu. - Ljósm. ÁHB.

Apablóm í skurði neðan við bæinn Brunná í Saurbæjarhreppi, Dalasýslu. – Ljósm. ÁHB.

 

Nöfn á erlendum málum:

Enska: monkeyflower, seep monkeyflower, common yellow monkeyflower, yellow monkeyflower, golden monkeyflower, seep monkeyflower, common monkeyflower
Danska: Åben Abeblomst
Norska: gjøglarblom
Sænska: gyckelblomma, gyckelblomster
Finnska: täpläapinankukka
Þýzka: Gelbe Gauklerblume, Gefleckte Gauklerblume
Franska: Mimule tacheté

 

ÁHB / 25. júlí 2017

 


 

 

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