Vefplöntur þáðu margt frá sveppum

Skrifað um October 23, 2013 · in Almennt · 191 Comments

Víst er, að landplöntur eru komnar af þörungum, sem lifa í sjó og ferskvatni. Mönnum hefur þó löngum verið ráðgáta, hvernig plönturnar „skriðu“ á land. Vitað er, að þörunga skortir mörg gen, sem hljóta að hafa verið vefplöntum nauðsynleg.

Nú er hins vegar margt, sem bendir til þess, að þessi gen séu komin úr svepparíkinu. Áður en vefplöntur urðu til hafa fléttur, sem eru myndaðar af sambýli þörunga og sveppa , náð að vaxa á þurru landi. Fyrstu landplöntur höfðu vitaskuld engar rætur og jarðvegur var lítill sem enginn. Sennilegt má telja, að í sambýli við sveppi hafi þeim tekizt að ná til sín nægilegu magni ólífrænna efna (steinefna), enda geta sveppþræðir losað um steinefni úr hörðu bergi. Enn lifa margar vefplöntur í sambýli við sveppi (sbr. svepprót).

Ætla má, að mörg efni önnur séu komin úr svepparíkinu við það, að gen hafi hoppað yfir í plöntur. Þar má nefna gen sem ráða litarefni í blómum, lígnín-gen til að auka styrk, gen til að verjast útfjólubláu ljósi og árás skordýra. Engin slík gen er að finna í þörungum, en þau eru hins vegar til meðal sveppa..

ÁHB / 23. okt. 2013

Sveppir eru afar furðulegar lífverur og eru nú taldir til sérstaks ríkis, svepparíkis. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Sveppir eru afar furðulegar lífverur og eru nú taldir til sérstaks ríkis, svepparíkis. Ljósm. ÁHB.


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