Tófugras – Cystopteris fragilis

Skrifað um April 13, 2013 · in Flóra · 228 Comments

Gróhirzlur á neðra borði á tófugrasi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Gróhirzlur á neðra borði á tófugrasi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Tófugrös – Cystopteris Bernh.
Liðfætluætt (Woodsiaceae). 15-20 tegundir tilheyra ættkvíslinni og vaxa einkum í tempruðum beltum jarðar og á háfjöllum í hitabeltinu. Allar tegundir kvíslarinnar eru mjög breytilegar að útliti og geta þar að auki æxlast hver með annarri. Þær eru því mjög oft vandgreindar. Á stundum talin til sérstakrar ættar (sjá þrílaufunga). Aðeins ein tegund vex hér á landi.

Ættkvíslarnafnið Cystopteris er komið af grísku orðunum kystor, blaðra og pteron, vængur. Gróhulan minnir á útblásna blöðru. Orðið pteris var notað á Grikklandi forðum sem nafn á burknum.

Tófugras – Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh.

Jarðstöngull láréttur og stuttur. Blaðstilkur er styttri en blaðka og mjög stökkur (fragilis, brothættur), brúnn eða grænn, á stundum með ljóst hreistur og hár. Blaðka er ljós- til dökkgræn, aflöng, tví- til þrífjöðruð og oddmjó. Næst neðsta blaðflipaparið jafnan lengst. Bleðlar fjaðursepóttir eða flipóttir. Gróblettir í tveimur röðum á neðra borði, liggja oft nálægt hver öðrum en renna þá saman við þroskun. Gróhula til hliðar, uppblásin.

Tófugras. Teikn. ÁHB.

Tófugras. Teikn. ÁHB.


Vex í urðum, skriðum og klettum, oft í skugga. Algengasti burkni landsins og algengur um land allt. 5-30 cm á hæð.
Mjög breytilegt í alla staði. Fyrir nokkrum árum var farið að aðgreina skollagras (C. dickieana R. Sim) frá tófugrasi á grundvelli útlits grós. Það eru ekki lengur talin haldbær rök.


Viðurnafnið fragilis merkir brothættur. Það er gott einkenni, að blaðstilkur hrekkur sundur við litla sveigju.

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: bladder Fern, brittle bladder fern, northern fragile fern, Dickie’s fern
Danska: Skør Bægerbregne
Sænska: stenbräken
Norska: skjørlok, berglok
Finnska: haurasloikko
Þýzka: Zerbrechlicher Blasenfarn, Dichie’s Blasenfarn
Franska: cystoptéris fragile, cystoptère fragile

ÁHB /13. apríl 2013

 

Þurrkað eintak af tófugrasi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Þurrkað eintak af tófugrasi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Leitarorð:

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