Þursaskeggssót ─ Anthracoidea elynae

Skrifað um August 24, 2012 · in Gróður · 853 Comments

Sótsveppur.

Sótsveppur

Sníkjulífi er ævafornt lífsform, sem er talið hafa þróazt sem svar við minnkandi fæðuframboði í árdaga lífsins. Það felst í því að ein lífvera, sníkill, lifir í eða á annarri, hýsli. Sníkillinn dregur til sín næringu úr hýslinum, sem lætur þá oft á sjá, enda valda margir sníklar sjúkdómum.

Það vakti snemma athygli, að margar lífverur bera sníkla án þess að skaðast. Reyndar hefur komið á daginn, að alls ekki er alltaf um sníkjulífi að ræða, þó að ein lífvera lifi á annarri. Samlífið getur verið báðum aðilum til hagsbóta og kallast það samhjálp, og er táknað +/+. Það er oft og tíðum ekki auðvelt að kveða upp úr um það, hvort um samhjálp eða sníkjulífi er að ræða. Þá er það og til, að sníkill lifir í öðrum sníkli. Kallast hann þá ofursníkill. ─ Eitt sinn áttu nemendur að nefna dæmi um ofursníkil. Einn óforskammaður nemandi svaraði: Lús í hári listamanns.

Oftast er það svo, að gerlar sníkja á dýrum og sveppir á plöntum. Undantekningar frá þessari reglu eru þó fjölmargar. Nytjaplöntur verða oft fyrir miklum skakkaföllum af völdum sníkjusveppa. Ástæður þess eru margar; meðal annars þær, að oft standa plönturnar óeðlilega þétt saman við tilbúnar aðstæður og eru allar af nákvæmlega sama meiði. Það er enginn breytileiki meðal einstaklinga. Úti í náttúrunni eru aðstæður aðrar og þar lifa tegundir í samfélagi hver við aðra.

Sumar tegundir sníkjusveppa eru bundnar ákveðnum plöntutegundum, lifa aðeins á þeim og sjaldan eða aldrei annars staðar. Þessir sníkjusveppir nefnast nauðsníklar. Yfirleitt valda þeir sjaldan miklu tjóni, en lífsferill þeirra er jafnan ærið flókinn, þó að þeir séu einfaldir að byggingu.

Sveppir á plöntum verða oft áberandi, þegar sumri tekur að halla. Í þeirra hópi eru sótsveppir, sem leggjast á fjölmargar tegundir, meðal annars á plöntur innan hálfgrasaættar, eins og mýrastör og þursaskegg.

Þursaskegg með sótsvepp.

Þursaskegg með sótsvepp.

Meðfylgjandi myndir sýna sníkjusveppinn þursaskeggssót (Anthracoidea elynae (Syd.) Kukkonen), sem lifir í aldininu á þursaskeggi (Kobresia myosuroides (Vill.) F. & Paol.).

Sótsveppur í blómi á þursaskeggi.

Þursaskeggssót í blómi á þursaskeggi.

Sveppurinn er mjög algengur um land allt og birtist sem sótsvartar, glansandi kúlur, 1 til 3 mm að þvermáli.

 

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