Stríðinu við bakteríur er hvergi nærri lokið

Skrifað um November 24, 2014 · in Almennt · 222 Comments

Áður hefur verið fjallað um örverur hér á síðum. Sjá til dæmis:

Bakteríur stjórna hegðun okkar
Baráttan við bakteríur
Binda mosar nitur úr andrúmslofti?
Gerlar sem grenna
Hvað er til ráða?
Umgangspestir og handþvottur
Chlamydia – gerlar til góðs eða ills

 

Ekki er þetta að ástæðulausu, því að talið er, að menn eigi eftir að eiga í stríði við þessar lífverur um ókomin ár. Þegar pensilín var uppgötvað fyrir rúmum 80 árum var miklum áfangasigri náð.

Vegna mikillar notkunar á þessum lyfjum, bæði í mönnum og dýrum, hafa komið fram stofnar baktería, sem þola þessi lyf. Nú þegar er orðið erfitt að ráða við algengar sýkingar og mun baráttan við bakteríurnar aukast mikið á næstu árum. Til þessa hefur verið auðvelt að ráða við lungnabólgu og blóðeitrun með sýklalyfjum, en menn óttast nú, að sá tími sé senn á enda.

Gæfulegast er að draga eins mikið og hægt er úr notkun sýklalyfja. Sumir hafa lagt til að hætta að gefa dýrum lyfin, en því miður hafa menn verið alltof örlátir á að sprauta dýr í forvarnarskyni, til dæmis fyrir burð.

Önnur leið er, að fólk almennt geri sér grein fyrir, hvar hætta sé á að sýkjast og temji sér umgengni, sem dragi sem mest úr líkum á smiti.

Sýklar berast mann frá manni. Á hverri mínútu losna um tíu þúsund húðflögur frá hverjum og einum og með þeim berst aragrúi sýkla út í umhverfið. Þá eru hósti og hnerri alþekktar smitunarleiðir, en einnig þegar menn tala og hreyfa sig strá þeir óteljandi sýklum út í andrúmsloftið. Bezta forvörnin er að þvo sér eins oft og auðið er um hendur og varast að fara með puttana upp í nef og munn. Agnir í andrúmslofti, sem eru innan við 10 µm að þvermáli haldast lengi á svifi í loftinu. Til að mynda, þegar menn sturta niður úr klósettskál þyrlast upp örsmáir vatnsdropar, mengaðir bakteríum og veirum, og fylla herbergið af sýklum. Þess vegna skal ávallt setja lokið yfir skálina áður.

Þó að stöðugt sé unnið að gerð nýrra sýklalyfja, telja menn, að enn sé langt í land með að verjast sýklum. Ein ný aðferð, sem hefur ekki enn hlotið almenna viðurkenningu, er að nota veirur til þess að ráðast á bakteríurnar. Það verður fróðlegt að fylgjast með, hvort það heppnast.

ÁHB / 24. nóvember 2014

 


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