Eiturefnahernaður með vegum

Skrifað um August 24, 2013 · in Almennt · 303 Comments

Það virðist augljóst, að þessi planta hafi verið úðuð. Ljósm. ÁHB

Það virðist augljóst, að þessi planta hafi verið úðuð innan þjóðgarðs. Ljósm. ÁHB


Einn morgun fyrir skömmu gekk eg þjóðveg úr Ásbyrgi í Kelduhverfi langleiðina að Skinnastað í Axarfirði (Öxarfirði). Birki- og víðikjarr sýndist mér vel sprottið og lítil sem engin óværa hrjáði plönturnar.

Í landi Ferjubakka og Skinnastaðar tók eg hins vegar eftir því, að gulvíðikjarr og einstaka birkihrísla meðfram veginum var lauflaust og dautt. Skyndilega flaug mér í hug, að hér hafði verið sprautað eiturefni (illgresis-eyði) til þess að halda vegar-öxlinni hreinni frá kjarrinu. Mikill vöxtur elftingar gat einnig bent til hins sama. Reyndar hafði þetta hvarflað að mér, þegar eg gekk skömmu áður í gegnum Vatnajökuls-þjóðgarð (við Jökulsárgljúfur), og sá stóra, dauða fláka af sortulyngi og rytjulegar hríslur. Þá sló eg þeirri hugsun frá mér, því að tæplega fæst leyfi til þess að nota slík efni innan þjóðgarðs.

Gulvíðir dauður í vegarkanti. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Gulvíðir dauður í vegarkanti. Ljósm. ÁHB.

 

Í framhaldi af þessari skoðun minni sendi eg Vegagerðinni fyrirspurn, hvort plöntueyðir væri notaður með vegum. Eftirfarandi, óundirritað svar barst stuttu síðar:

„Vegagerðin hefur notað graseyðinn Roundup á vegaxlir nokkur undanfarin ár. Einnig hefur efnið Clinik verið notað í sama tilgangi.
Það er hinsvegar óheppilegt að nota roundup til að hreinsa trjágróður úr vegrásum eins og gerðist þarna í Öxarfirðinum og verður því hætt þótt það þurfi augljóslega að fjarlægja gróður þarna. Verða farnar aðrar leiðir til þess en að eitra og þar sem það er nú keppikefli Vegagerðarinnar að vera eins umhverfisvæn og kostur er ætti eitrun að vera í algjöru lágmarki.
Rétt er að fara yfir það verklag eftir þessa ábendingu. Takk fyrir hana.“

Svo mörg voru þau orð. Hvorki kemur hér fram, hve miklu magni né hvar hafi verið sprautað undanfarin ár.

Nú er það sjálfsagt mikilvægt, að halda kjarr-gróðri frá vegarbrún, en fer ekki betur á því í landi hreinleikans að saga það með kjarrsög heldur en úða eitri yfir plönturnar. Enn hefur ekkert „eitur“ verið framleitt, sem er skaðlaust öðrum en því er ætlað, að því fróðustu menn segja.

Annars staðar á Norðurlöndum hefur eitur-efnanotkun meðfram vegum og járnbrautum mikið verið gagnrýnd, og er sífellt verið að leita nýrra leiða í baráttunni við pönturnar. Þar eru aðstæður talsvert öðru vísi en hér og margar plöntur harðsæknari. Hérlendis er ekki um slíkt stórmál að ræða að grípa þurfi til eitur-efnahernaðar meðfram vegum.

Lausleg athugun mín hefur leitt í ljós, að það er á vitorði margra, að hjá Vegagerðinni væri notaður illgresiseyðir í talsverðum mæli til þess að drepa plöntur í vegarköntum. Á síðustu dögum hef eg séð ummerki á fleiri stöðum í Þingeyjarsýslum. Enginn hefur þó séð ástæðu til þess að vekja athygli á þessum efnahernaði. Ef til vill er skýringin sú, að almennt er álitið, að plöntueyðirinn Roundup, sem er jafnan notaður, sé öðrum lífverum með öllu skaðlaus.

Roundup

Hin síðari ár hafa komið fram ótal vísbendingar um að svo sé alls ekki og að efnið sé miklu varasamara en álitið var í fyrstu. Framleiðandi eitursins, Monsanto, hefur beitt öllum tiltækum meðölum til að koma í veg fyrir hlutlausar athuganir. Sama fyrirtæki framleiddi plöntueyði (agent orange), sem var notaður í Vietnamstríðinu, og hefur skaðað um fjórar milljónir manna, drepið um 400 þúsund og valdið vansköpun á um hálfri milljón nýfæddra barna. Það efni er nú bannað.

Virka efnið í Roundupi nefnist glyfosat, en það er sameind sem er sögð aðeins hafa áhrif á plöntur en ekki á skordýr, spendýr og menn. Plöntur taka efnið upp gegnum blöð, blóm, stofna og stilka. Þaðan berst það niður í rótarkerfið. Efnið hindrar myndun á lífsnauðsynlegum amínósýrum, svo að plantan visnar og drepst á einni til tveimur vikum. Þó eru nokkrar tegundir mosa, sem virðast þola efnið, svo og klóelfting vegna þess að hún inniheldur mikinn kísil. Það var ekki sízt vöxtur hennar, sem vakti grun minn í Axarfirði um úðun roundups á dögunum. Sambærilegt ferli amínósýrna á sér ekki stað í öðrum lífverum og þess vegna var glyfosatið talið þeim óskaðlegt.

Nú er talið, að roundup sé ekki eins vistvænt og af er látið. Staðfest hefur verið erting í augum og húð af þess völdum og slæmska í lungum. Þá er vitað, að sum skordýr þola efnið ekki og á það ber að líta, þegar nær allar plöntur drepast, hefur það ótvírætt áhrif á aðrar lífverur.

Þó að hið tiltekna ferli amínósýrna fari ekki fram í mönnum, hafa margir bent á, að efnið geti mjög sennilega gripið inn í önnur ferli í mönnum og telja margir sig hafa ótvíræðar sannanir um það. Einkum hefur verið bent á áhrif roundups á kynhormón í mönnum. Þá hafa komið fram lifrarskemmdir í rottum af völdum efnisins. Um allt slíkt má fræðast á netinu.

Leifar af glyfosati hafa greinzt í jarðarberjum, sallati, gulrótum og fiskum samkvæmt áreiðanlegum niðurstöðum einu ári eftir að því var úðað yfir. Í Landskrona-héraði í Svíþjóð fundust leifar af efninu í drykkjarvatni og einnig í Helsingborg og Höganäs.

Ábyrgð Vegagerðarinnar

Hvernig svo sem á þetta er litið, ríkir mikil óvissa um áhrif þessa efnis. Það hlýtur því að vera ótvíræð skylda hvers og eins að takmarka alla notkun eins og kostur er. Það ætti að gera Vegagerðinni skylt að merkja alla staði, sem efninu hefur verið sprautað yfir. Til dæmis eru góð berjalönd nálægt vegi í Axarfirði, bæði bláber og hrútaber. Eg held að fáir vilji tína ber á slíkum stað. Þegar efninu er úðað yfir land, getur það borizt yfir allt að 400 metra breitt svæði, langt út fyrir það land, sem Vegagerðin ræður yfir sem veghaldari.

En það sem kórónar verk Vegagerðarinnar er að hafa sprautað efninu í stærsta þjóðgarði landsins. Öll ummerki meðfram vegi benda til þess. Þar hefur hins vegar verið reynt að hreinsa til á heldur ósnyrtilegan hátt. Forsvarsmaður þjóðgarðsins í Jökulsárgljúfrum kannaðist ekki við neitt slíkt og hann verður þá að skýra umrótið í vegarkantinum á trúverðugan hátt. Að öðrum kosti er óhætt að taka Vatnajökulsþjóðgarð út af skrá yfir þjóðgarða.

Dautt hrís í Vatnajökulsþjóðgarði. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Dautt hrís í Vatnajökulsþjóðgarði. Ljósm. ÁHB.


Er til of mikils mælzt, að starfsmenn Vegagerðarinnar geri nákvæma grein fyrir notkun á eiturefnum? En seint verður Vegagerðin talin í hópi umhverfisvænna stofnana.

ÁHB / 24. ágúst 20013

 

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