Skarfakál – Cochlearia

Skrifað um December 13, 2015 · in Flóra · 90 Comments

cochlearia

Ættkvíslin skarfakál – Cochlearia L. – telst til krossblómaættar (Brassicaceae, syn. Crusiferae). Plöntur kvíslarinnar eru ein- eða tvíæringar, fáar eru fjölæringar. Stöngull er uppréttur til jarðlægur, ýmist greindur eða ógreindur. Bæði með stofn- og stöngulblöð, sem oftast eru nokkuð kjötkennd, nýrlaga til aflöng, ýmist stilkuð eða stilklaus, heilrend, smá-bugðótt eða tennt.
Blómskipun er klasi. Bikarblöð eru útstæð, oft hvelfd. Krónublöð eru hvít (á stundum með rauðleitum blæ), öfuglensulaga til spaðalaga. Aldinin eru skálpar, hnöttóttir til sporöskjulaga, og skilrúmið gengur í gegnum skálp á þann veg, sem hann er breiðari.
Um 20 tegundir teljast til þessarar kvíslar. Hér á landi vex ein tegund örugglega og ef til vill önnur til (sjá síðar).
Ættkvíslarnafnið Cochlearia er dregið af grísku orði, kokhliárion, sem hefur verið fært yfir á latínu ‘cochleare’, skeið, spónn, og tekur mið af spaðalaga lögun blaða á nokkrum tegundum.

Samnefni:
Cochleariopsis Á. Löve & D. Löve; Glaucocochlearia (O. E. Schulz) Pobedemova

Greiningarlykill að tegundum innan Cochlearia:
1. Krónublöð >4 mm á lengd. Skálpar hnöttóttir eða lítið eitt aflangir ………. skarfakál (C. officinalis)
1. Krónublöð 2-4 mm á lengd. Skálpar fremur aflangir en hnöttóttir eða lítið eitt aflangir … fjallaskarfakál (C. groenlandica)
Skarfakál – Cochlearia officinalis
Skarfakál – Cochlearia officinalis L. – tví- til fjölær, hárlaus, safrík jurt. Stöngull er uppsveigður til uppréttur, oft greinóttur, stórgáróttur. Stofnblöð á stilk, nýrlaga, hjartalaga til aflöng, heilrend eða smábugðótt. Stöngulblöð stilklaus, oft greipfætt, heilrend eða jafnvel stórtennt, mjög breytileg að lögun.
Blómskipun er klasi á stöngulenda. Fjórdeild blóm. Bikarblöð 1-2 mm, græn- eða fjólubláleit. Krónublöð um 4 mm, öfugegglaga til spaðalaga, hvít en oft með rauðleitan blæ. Skálpar hnatt- til egglaga, helmingi styttri en skálpleggir.
Tegundin er mjög breytileg og hefur mörgum undirtegundum og afbrigðum verið lýst. Að sinni verður ekki farið út í þá sálma hér. Eitt afbrigði, var. oblongifolia (D.C.) Gelert, var nefnt arfakál. Ekki er ósennilegt, að íslenzka skarfakálið verði gert að sérstakri undirtegund, þá er Flora Nordica verður gefin út næst (Cochlearia officinalis ssp. islandica (Pobed.) Nordal & Bjorå ined.)
Vex í þéttum jarðvegi nálægt sjó en á stundum á háfjöllum og er þá mjög smávaxið. Algengt um land allt. Blómgast í maí–júní. 10–50 cm á hæð.
Viðurnafnið officinalis er komið úr latínu, ‘officina’, verkstæði, lyfjabúð, og er komið til af því, að tegundin var áður til sölu þar undir nafninu ‘herba Cochleariæ’.
Skarfakál er gömul lækningaplanta. Var það talið uppleysandi, þvag- og svitadrífandi, blóðhreinsandi og örva tíðir kvenna. Oft var það soðið og lagt í skyr, sem geymt var til vetrar. Blöðin eru bezt fersk og eru þau mulin í mortéli með sykri. Rótin var etin ýmist hrá eða soðin. Plantan er rík af C-vítamíni.
Samnefni:
C. anglica L., C. officinalis L. var. anglica (L.) Alef.
Nöfn á erlendum málum (nöfn taka mið af ssp. officinalis):
Enska: common scurvy-grass, spoonwort
Danska: Læge-Kokleare
Norska: skjørbuksurt
Sænska: skörbjuggsört, skedört; vanlig skörbjuggsört
Finnska: ruijankuirimo
Þýzka: Echtes Löffelkraut
Franska:

Fjallaskarfakál – Cochlearia groenlandica
Fjallaskarfakál – Cochlearia groenlandica L. – er í flestu mjög líkt skarfakáli, nema það er allt miklu smærra í sniðum. Oftast eru stönglar nokkrir saman uppréttir eða jarðlægir, greinóttir ofan til. Stofnblöð í hvirfingu, stilkuð, heilrend eða tennt. Neðstu stöngulblöð oft á stilk en hin efri stilklaus, heilrend eða lítillega tennt.
Blómskipun er klasi, oft blómmargur. Blóm svipuð og á undanfarandi tegund. Skálpar oft ekki jafn hnöttóttir, um það bil jafnlangir og skálpleggir.
Vex á gróðursnauðum melum hátt til fjalla á stöku stað nokkuð inni í landi.
Staða þessa smávaxna skarfakáls er nokkuð óviss. Hvort þetta er sérstök tegund eða afbrigði af C. officinalis ssp. islandica skal ósagt látið á þessari stundu.
Samnefni:
Cochlearia arctica Schlechtendal ex de Candolle; C. arctica ssp. oblongifolia (de Candolle) V. V. Petrovsky; C. fenestrata R. Brown; C. oblongifolia de Candolle; C. officinalis Linnaeus ssp. arctica (Schlechtendal ex de Candolle) Hultén; C. officinalis ssp. oblongifolia (de Candolle) Hultén; C. officinalis var. oblongifolia (de Candolle) Gelert; Cochleariopsis groenlandica (Linnaeus) Á. Löve & D. Löve; C. groenlandica ssp. oblongifolia (de Candolle) Á. Löve & D. Löve
Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: Greenland scurvy-grass, round leaved scurvy grass
Danska:
Norska: polarskjörbuksurt
Sænska: grönländsk skörbjuggsört
Finnska: grönlanninkuirimo
Þýzka:
Franska: herbe à la cuiller, herbe aux cuillers

ÁHB / 13. desember 2015

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