Brachythecium – lokkmosar, ásamt Brachytheciastrum og Sciuro-hypnum

Skrifað um October 5, 2014 · in Mosar · 574 Comments

Ættkvíslin Brachythecium W. P. Schimper, lokkmosar, er í víðri merkingu (sensu lato) allstór ættkvísl með um 300 tegundum. Að vísu hefur verið höggvið í hana hin síðari ár (kvíslirnar Brachytheciastrum og Sciuro-hypnum), svo að nú eru kannski ekki nema um 150 tegundir henni tilheyrandi. Ættkvíslin hefur þótt erfið í greiningu, því að tegundir eru náskyldar. Alltaf má gera ráð fyrir vafaeintökum, sem illgerlegt er að ákvarða nákvæmlega nema með fyrirhafnarmiklum samanburði við önnur eintök.

Til kvíslanna teljast liggjandi, þekjumyndandi blaðmosar. Fáeinar tegundir vaxa á steinum og trjám. Blöð eru jafnan gulgræn og mjókka frá egglaga eða hjartalaga grunni fram í mjóan odd; blaðrönd oft niðurhleypt, flöt eða á stundum útundin neðst, óreglulega tennt. Rif einfalt og nær að minnsta kosti að blaðmiðju. Frumur í blaði aflangar, sléttar og ávallt 5x lengri en breiddin. Stilkur 1-3 cm á lengd, ýmist sléttur eða hrjúfur (Sciuro-hypnum). Gróhirzla oftast lárétt eða álút, egglaga. Opkrans tvöfaldur.

Brachythecium er myndað af grísku orðunum ‘brachys’, stuttur og ‘thekion’, baukur, og er þar átt við gróhirzlu.

Við greiningu á tegundum kvísla er mikilvægast að skoða vandlega stofnblöð; lengd rifs er þýðingarmikið atriði og nær það jafnan að blaðmiðju og á stundum fram í enda, og rétt er að líta alltaf á nokkur blöð. Blaðjaðar er oftast eitthvað tenntur, jafnan flatur en getur verið útundinn að hluta. En það, sem ef til vill mun reynast erfiðast, er, að dæma um langfellingar. Ef blöð eru útundin getur virzt eins og þau séu með langfellingar og ber að varast það, nema fellingin nái verulega upp fyrir svæðið, sem er útundið. Frumur í blaðhornum geta verið ferningslaga, rétthyrndar eða tigullaga. Hornfrumur eru misjafnlega vel aðgreindar frá öðrum frumum.

Sé átt við einkenni í greinablöðum, er það tekið fram sérstaklega. Af 16 tegundum hérlendis eru 7 alloft eða oft með gróhirzlur, 3 sjaldan og á 6 hafa gróhirzlur aldrei fundizt. Þessar 7 eru: B. plumosum, B. populeum, B. glaciale, B. rutabulum, B. salebrosum, B. reflexum og B. velutinum; hinir 3 eru: B. mildeanum, B. albicans og B. starkei.

Eins og áður sagði hefur kvíslinni Brachythecium verið skipt; tvær ættkvíslir hafa verið klofnar frá; Brachytheciastrum Ignatov & Huttunen og Sciuro-hypnum Hampe; að auki hefur ein tegund úr annarri ættkvísl verið flutt yfir, það er Cirriphyllum cirrosum telst nú til Brachythecium cirrosum.

Þrátt fyrir skiptingu í þrjár ættkvíslir, Brachythecium, Brachytheciastrum og Sciuro-hypnum, er talið hentugra að hafa einn greiningarlykil.

Greiningarlykill að tegundum ættkvíslanna þriggja:

1 Blaðendi bogadreginn og mjókkar snöggt fram í langan, mjóan odd ………. B. cirrosum (syn. Cirriphyllum cirrosum)
1 Blaðendi, að frátöldum oddi, ekki bogadreginn …………………. 2

2 Rif lengra en 0,8 af blaðlengd. Stilkur hrjúfur …………………… 3
2 Rif 0,4-0,7 af blaðlengd. Stilkur sléttur eða hrjúfu……………… 5

3 Blaðoddur oft snúinn. Frumur í framhluta > 70 µm. Rif endar fyrir neðan blaðodd. Lengd:breidd blaða: 1,5-2:1 … S. starkei
3 Blaðoddur aldrei snúinn. Frumur í framhluta < 60 µm. Rif nær fram í blaðodd. Lengd:breidd blaða: 3-5:1 ….. 4

4 Blaðrönd langt niðurhleypt. Hliðargreinar strjálar, gisblöðóttar. …….. S. reflexum
4 Blaðrönd lítillega niðurhleypt. Hliðargreinar þéttar, þéttblöðóttar. …. S. populeum

5 Lengd:breidd blaða: 3-5:1, með langfellingar ………………………. 6
5 Lengd:breidd blaða: <3:1, með eða án langfellinga ……………… 10

6 Stórvaxnar plöntur. Sprotar sívalir. Lengd:breidd blaða: 3,5-5:1, með djúpar langfellingar …. 7
6 Miðlungs stórar eða fíngerðar plöntur. Sprotar oft flatir. Lengd:breidd blaða: um 3:1, með eða án grunnra langfellinga …. 8

7 Blöð mjókka smám saman fram í langan, fíngerðan odd, sem oft er snúinn ……… B. glareosum
7 Blöð mjókka snöggt fram í fíngerðan odd, sem aldrei er snúinn ………….. B. turgidum

8 Blöð <2 mm ……….. Brachytheciastrum velutinum
8 Blöð >2 mm ……….. 9

9 Blöð lensulaga, langydd, með áberandi langfellingar. Blöð á greinaendum oft einhliðasveigð ….. B. salebrosum
9 Blöð með hjartalaga grunn, egglaga eða aflangt þríhyrnd, stuttydd, ekki með áberandi langfellingar. Blöð á greinaendum aldrei einhliðasveigð ….. B. mildeanum

10 Hornfrumur ná langleiðina inn að rifi, eru ferningslaga eða ferhyrndar og smáar. Horn ekki skýrt afmörkuð. Rif nær að blaðmiðju, á stundum klofið ……….. S. plumosum
10 Horn vel eða illa afmörkuð. Hornfrumur stórar eða litlar. Ná ekki nema hálfa leið að rifi ……. 11

11 Blöð <2 mm …………………….. 12
11 Blöð >2 mm …………………….. 15

12 Blöð næstum flöt, lítið kúpt, upprétt, ekki mjög þéttstæð; heilrend eða lítillega tennt framan til. Greinar oft langar ……………. 13
12 Blöð kúpt, aðlæg og þéttstæð; greinilega fíntennt niður fyrir blaðmiðju. Greinar stuttar. …………. 14

13 Vex í kjarri og urðum. Frumur framan til í blaði 60-130 µm. Blaðoddur oft snúinn ……………. S. starkei
13 Vex á rökum jarðvegi til fjalla. Frumur framan til í blaði 45-80 µm. Blaðoddur aldrei snúinn ………… S. latifolium

14 Hliðargreinar allt að 8 mm. Hornfrumur með meðalþykka veggi. Blaðrönd útundin neðst. Breidd frumna framan til í blaði 7-10 µm …………… S. glaciale
14 Hliðargreinar mest 4 mm. Hornfrumur með þunna veggi. Blaðrönd útundin neðst. Breidd frumna framan til í blaði um 6 µm ………….. Brachythesiastrum collinum

15 Blöð á greinaendum einhliðasveigð. Á greinablöðum enda rif oft sem gaddur út úr bakhlið ………. S. plumosum
15 Blöð á greinaendum meira og minna bein. Enginn gaddur á greinablöðum ……… 16

16 Smáar hornfrumur mynda ræmu talsvert upp eftir blaðrönd. Engar hliðargreinar á fremsta hluta sprota (2-3 cm). Oft hvítleitar plöntur …. B. albicans
16 Stórar eða smáar hornfrumur mynda ekki ræmu upp eftir blaðrönd. Hliðargreinar ná fremst á sprota. Aldrei hvítleitar plöntur ………… 17

17 Blöð stuttydd. Hornfrumur stórar og tútnar, mynda afmörkuð horn með litlausa, niðurhleypta ræmu. Rif nær upp fyrir blaðmiðju …… B. rivulare
17 Blöð langydd. Hornfrumur sjaldan tútnar, mynda ekki litlaus horn; blaðrönd lítillega niðurhleypt. Rif nær ekki upp fyrir blaðmiðju ……….. B. rutabulum

Brachytheciastrum Ignatov & Huttunen

B. collinum (Schleich. ex Müll. Hal.) Ignatov & Huttunen — holtaþyrill

B. velutinum (Hedw.) Ignatov & Huttunen — lurkaþyrill
Getur líkzt S. populeum og Rhyncostegium confertum.

Brachythecium Schimp.

B. albicans (Hedw.) Schimp. — götulokkur
Getur líkzt B. glareosum og B. mildeanum

B. cirrosum (Schwägr. in Schultes) Schimp. — urðalokkur

B. glareosum (Bruch ex Spruce) Schimp. — giljalokkur
Getur líkzt Homalothecium lutescens, smáum eintökum af B. albicans, B. salebrosum og B. rutabulum.

B. mildeanum (Schimp.) Schimp. ex Milde — bleytulokkur
Getur líkzt B. rutabulum, B. glareosum og B. salebrosum.

B. rivulare Schimp. — lækjalokkur
Getur líkzt B. rutabulum.

B. rutabulum (Hedw.) Schimp. — engjalokkur
Getur líkzt B. rivulare.

B. salebrosum (F.Weber & D.Mohr) Schimp. — brekkulokkur
Getur líkzt Homalothecium sericeum, B. glareosum og B. mildeanum

B. turgidum (C.Hartm.) Kindb. — lindalokkur

Sciuro-hypnum Hampe

S. glaciale (Schimp.) Ignatov & Huttunen — lautasveipur
Getur líkzt B. rivulare, S. populeum og Kindbergia praelonga.

S. latifolium (Kindb.) Ignatov & Huttunen — vætusveipur

S. plumosum (Hedw.) Ignatov & Huttunen — lænusveipur
Getur líkzt B. rutabulum og B. rivulare.

S. populeum (Hedw.) Ignatov & Huttunen — klettasveipur
Getur líkzt Homalothecium sericeum og B. velutinum

S. reflexum (Starke) Ignatov & Huttunen — urðasveipur
Getur líkzt S. glaciale og tegundum, sem honum líkjast.

S. starkei (Brid.) Ignatov & Huttunen — gjótusveipur

 

P.s. Lýsingar á einstökum tegundum, teikningar og litmyndir munu birtast smám saman.

 

Helztu heimildir:
A.J.E. Smith, 2004: The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press
Ágúst H. Bjarnason, 2010: Greiningarlykill að ættkvíslum íslenzkra blaðmosa (Musci) ásamt tegundaskrá. Fjölrit Vistfræðistofu n:r 40. Reykjavík.
Bergþór Jóhannsson: Íslenskir mosar. Fjölrit Náttúrufræðistofnunar n:r 33. Júní 1997.
Elsa Nyholm, 1965: Illustrated Moss Flora of Fennoscandia. II. Musci Fasc. 5. Lund.
Tomas Hallingbäck, Ingmar Holmåsen, 2008: Mossor. En fälthandbok. Interpublishing. Stockholm.

 

ÁHB / 5. október 2014

P.s. Höfundur hlaut styrk frá Hagþenki 2014 til ritstarfa.

 


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