Ljós fita verður að brúnni

Skrifað um December 9, 2014 · in Almennt · 185 Comments

Tvenns konar fituvefur er í mönnum (og reyndar öllum öðrum spendýrum): Ljós fituvefur og brúnn fituvefur. Ljósa fitan geymir orkugæf efni, sem nýtast í öndunarefnaskiptum líkamans, þegar hann þarf á þeim að halda, sem er nú sjaldan nú orðið. Einnig ver hún líkamann gegn kulda. Brúna fitan aftur á móti sér um myndun á varma, enda er mikið af hvatberum að finna í henni. Þá fitu er einkum að finna í reifabörnum, sem geta ekki varizt kulda á sama hátt og fullorðnir. Talsverður munur er á þessum tveimur gerðum vefja. Ljósu fitufrumurnar eru með eina stóra fitubólu í sér, sem nemur um 85% af rúmfangi frumunnar. Brúnu fitufrumurnar eru minni og í þeim eru margar smáar fitubólur og í talsvert minna mæli en í hinum ljósu. Að auki er aragrúi af hvatberum í frumunum, en þeir sjá um brennslu á brúnu fitunni með súrefni, sem skilar varma út í umhverfið.

Samkvæmt grein í tímaritinu Nature Cell Biology hefur bandarískum lífefnafræðingum við Stofnfrumustofnunina í Harvard nú tekizt að láta líkamann breyta ljósum fitufrumum í brúnar fitufrumur. Lengi hefur verið unnið að þessu verkefni á mörgum vígstöðum í þeirri von að finna töflur, sem stuðla að þessari breytingu. Þetta gæti þá gagnast þeim, sem eru of feitir, því að þá myndi verulegur hluti fitunnar brenna í sjálfum líkamanum án þess að fara á hlaupabretti.

Enn mun þó langt í land, að slíkar megrunarpillur verði til, en hver veit hvað framtíðin ber í skauti sér. Slíkri pillu fylgja þó ýmsir ókostir, því að líkamshiti mun hækka verulega og ljósa fitan er öllum nauðsynleg að vissu marki. Og sennilegast er talið, að fitubrennslupillur muni miklu frekar gagnast til þess að menn haldi réttri vikt fremur en til megrunar.

 

ÁHB / 9. desember 2014

 

Heimild: http://www.nature.com/ncb/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ncb3075.html

 


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