Gullintoppuætt ─ Plumbaginaceae

Skrifað um November 30, 2012 · in Flóra · 288 Comments

Krónublöð á blárunna (Plumbago capensis)
Krónublöð á blárunna (Plumbago capensis)

Gullintoppuætt ─ Plumbaginaceae

Flestar tegundir innan gullintoppuættar (Plumbaginaceae) eru fjölærar, lágvaxnar jurtir, en þó eru nokkrar einærar og fáar klifurtegundir og runnar. Þær vaxa dreifðar um heiminn í flestum loftslagsbeltum frá miðbaugi til heimsskauta, en halda sig einna helzt á saltríkum steppum, sjávarfitjum og við hafsstrendur. Megin útbreiðslusvæði tegunda er þó við Miðjarðarhaf og í Asíu.

Oftast eru blöð stofnstæð, þráðmjó eða spaðalaga og heilrend. Neðst á blöðum eru oft kalkkirtlar og þannig losar plantan sig við ofurmagn steinefna. Kirtlarnir gera tegundum kleift að lifa við háan saltstyrk.

Blómskipunarstönglar eru uppréttir, blaðlausir. Blómskipun margbreytileg, kvíslskúfur, puntur, klasi, kollur eða hálfsveipur. Blómstöngull enginn eða stuttur. Blóm eru tvíkynja, regluleg, undirsætin; bikarblöð 5 að tölu, langæ (haldast alveg fram að fræþroska), himnukennd og felld, oft krónublaðkennd, tennt eða með kraga. Krónublöð 5, samblaða, oft djúpklofin, getur verið pípulaga jafnan rósrauð eða fjólublá. Fræflar 5, festir neðst við krónu; 5 stílar á frævu með einrýmt eggleg, hárlaus eða hærð neðantil; yfirsætið. Aldin hulstur, hneta eða hýði; eitt fræ. Skordýrafrævun.

Margar tegundir ættarinnar eru vinsælar garðplöntur víða um heim vegna fagurra blóma. Nafn ættarinnar, Plumbaginaceae, hefur löngum valdið mönnum heilabrotum. Á einum stað (Paxton’s Botanical Dictionary, London 1868) segir, að nafnið sé komið af því, að sumar tegundir geti læknað augnsjúkdóm, sem heitir „plumbum“. Sem kunnugt er, merkir plumbum blý. Aðrir telja, að blý-grár litur, sem stafar af útfellingum úr kalkkirtlum, sé orsök nafnsins. Þá hefur verið bent á, að samkvæmt gömlum bókum voru tegundir innan ættarinnar notaðar til þess að lækna blýeitrun.

 

Um 775 tegundir eru innan ættar og skiptast á 24-29 ættkvíslir. Aðeins ein tegund vex á Íslandi, geldingahnappur (Armeria maritima). Þá eru einar 5-8 tegundar af ættkvísl Armeria ræktaðar lítillega í görðum. Blárunni (Plumbago capensis) er á stundum ræktaður hér innan húss sem klifurrunni; hann er með ljósblá, pípulaga blóm í klasa á enda klifurstöngla. Blárunni var fyrrum tugginn til þess að lina tannpínu, enda er nafn hans á frönsku dentalaire, en hann örvar munnvatnsrennsli vegna þess hve beiskur hann er. Sjá myndir af blárunna.

Ættkvíslir ættarinnar eru oftast taldar þessar:
Acantholimon, Aegialitis, (Afrolimon), Armeria, (Bakerolimon), Bamiana, Buciniczea, Cephalorhizum, (Ceratolimon), Ceratostigma, Chaetolimon, Dictyolimon, Dyerophytum, Eremolimon, Ghasnianthus, Goniolimon, Ikonnikovia, Limoniastrum, Limoniopsis, Limonium (syn. Statice), Muellerolimon, (Myriolepis,) Neogontscharovia, Plumbagella, Plumbago, Popoviolimon, Psylliostachys, (Saharanthus), Vassilczenkoa.


Sjá: Geldingahnappur (Armeria maritima)

ÁHB / 30.11.2012


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