Brjóstagrös – Thalictrum

Skrifað um September 2, 2013 · in Flóra · 131 Comments

Ættkvíslin brjóstagrös (Thalictrum) telst til sóleyjaættar (Ranunculaceae). Um 330 tegundir heyra til ættkvíslinni, en aðeins ein tegund vex villt hér á landi, brjóstagras (Thalictrum alpinum). Þá eru nokkrar tegundir ræktaðar till skrauts í görðum.

Þetta eru fjölærar jurtir, jafnan hárlausar og oft stórvaxnar; stöngull uppréttur með engin eða fá, gisin blöð. Blöð stofnstæð, mjög oft blágæn að lit, fjöðruð og neðri blöð einnig fjöðruð (tvífjöðruð); smáblöð sepótt eða tennt. Axlarblöð himnukennd.
Blóm lítil, oftast í puntlíkum skipunum eða klösum. Blómhlíf er einföld; blómhlífarblöð eru fjögur, ósjáleg og oftast skammæ (örfáar tegundir með stór hlífarblöð). Fræflar margir; frjóþræðir langir og oft litir; frjóknappar langir, hvítir, gulir eða fjólubláir. Aldin er lítið hnot (hneta).
Ættkvíslin sker sig úr öðrum í sóleyjaætt á því, að blómhlífarblöð eru lítil og ósjáleg, en fræflarnir eru mest áberandi hlutar blómsins.

Ættkvíslarnafnið, Thalictrum, er fornt, grískt plöntunafn (thalikktron); thallo á grísku merkir að verða grænn.

Grasafræðingum hefur löngum þótt erfitt að skilgreina til fullnustu tegundir innan kvíslarinnar; frekari rannsóknir bíða betri tíma. Innan hópsins eru hvoru tveggja vind- og skordýrafrævuð blóm og að auki milligerðir. Hér má greinilega sjá þróunarröð frá skordýrafrævun í vindfrævun.

Tegundir eru dreifðar um allan heim, einkum á norðurhveli, en teygja sig þó til Suður-Afríku og hitabeltis í Suður-Ameríku; þær eru óþekktar í Asíu og Ástralíu.

Eins og áður sagði vex aðeins ein tegund hér á landi, brjóstagras.

Brjóstagras – Thalictrum alpinum L.

Stöngull er stinnur og mjór, blaðlaus eða einblaða með langan endastæðan blómklasa. Stofnstæðu blöðin eru lítil, tvífjöðruð, sepótt, dökkgræn á efra borði og blágrá á neðra borði með niðurorpnar rendur; blaðstilkur grannur. Öll plantan er hárlaus.

Brjóstagras þekkist auðveldast á blöðum. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Brjóstagras þekkist auðveldast á blöðum. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Blómhlíf er einföld, í raun 4 föl-fjólublá, oddmjó bikarblöð (sjaldan 5), um 2 mm á lengd, ósjáleg og falla af snemma. Fræflar setja svip á blóm, 8-15 að tölu; frjóþræðirnir grannir og fjólubláir; frjóknapparnir aflangir (2-2,5 mm á lengd), gulir í fyrstu, síðan brúnir. Frævur eru 2-6, nærri legglausar, 2-3,5 mm á hæð. Aldin er hneta.

Fræflar eru margir og skaga langt út úr blómi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Fræflar eru margir og skaga langt út úr blómi. Ljósm. ÁHB.

 

Brjóstagras er fjölært og lítið eitt eitrað. Blóm eru lyktarlaus enda löguð að vindfrævun. Það fjölgar sér með renglum, sem vaxa út frá láréttum jarðstöngli. Plöntur bera ekki blóm fyrr en nokkurra ára gamlar. Helzta einkenni brjóstagrass eru blöðin.

Vex í margs konar gróðurlendi; þarf eilítið deigan jarðveg. Mjög algengt um land allt. Blómgast í maí til júní. 5-20 cm á hæð.

Eins og nafnið gefur til kynna var brjóstagras talið gott við brjóstmeinum kvenna og við júgurbólgu og nefnt júgurgras (eða júfurgras). Nöfnin kveisugras og kverkagras benda til þess, að það hafi verið notað við innantökum og hálsbólgu.

Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: alpine meadow-rue, arctic meadow rue, dwarf meadow-rue, pigamon alpin
Danska: Fjeld-Frøstjerne
Norska: fjellfrøstjerne, blåsprett
Sænska: fjällruta
Finnska: tunturiängelmä
Þýzka: Alpenwiesenraute
Franska: pigamon des Alpes
Ryðsveppurinn Puccinia septentrionalis, sem vex á kornsúru (Bistorta vivipara), nýtir sér brjóstagras sem millihýsil. Blöð og blaðstilkar brjóstagrass bólgna þá upp og fá á sig fjólubláan lit. Þar myndast gróhirzlur sveppsins, sem líta út sem litlir, gulir blettir.

Ryðsveppurinn Puccinia septentrionalis sníkir á stilk og blöðum. Gulu blettirnir eru gróhirzlur. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Ryðsveppurinn Puccinia septentrionalis sníkir á stilk og blöðum. Gulu blettirnir eru gróhirzlur. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Ræktaðar tegundir

Hér á landi eru nokkrar tegundir af Thalictrum ræktaðar í görðum. Eftirfarandi greiningarlykill nær yfir hinar helztu.

1 Stilkur blaðlaus eða einblaða. Blóm í gisnum og fáblóma klösum. Lágvaxin, vex villt hérlendis …… brjóstagras
1 Stilkur með fáum, gisnum blöðum. Blóm í þéttum toppum eða skúfum. Oft mjög hávaxin ………. 2

2 Frjóþræðir gildvaxnir og sverari en frjóknappar efst, hvítir eða fjólubláir. Hneta á stilk .. T. aquilegifolium (freyjugras)
2 Frjóþræðir ekki gildvaxnir og mjórri en frjóknappar, gulir eða fjólubláir. Hneta stilkstutt eða stilklaus …. 3

3 Blaðka álíka löng og hún er breið. Blómskipun gild, pýramítlaga ………………….. 4
3 Blaðka aflöng, mun lengri en hún er breið. Blómskipun mjó ………………………… 5

4 Blöð hárlaus ………………….. T. minus (sjafnargras)
4 Blöð alsett kirtilhárum …………. T. foetidum (þefjargras)

5 Blóm upprétt. Fræflar uppréttir, frjóþræðir gulir ……………. T. flavum (mánagras)
5 Blóm drúpa. Fræflar hanga, frjóþræðir jafnan fjólubláir ………. T. simplex (lofnargras)

ÁHB / 2. sept. 2013

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