Biskupshattar (fjalldalafíflar) – Geum

Skrifað um December 27, 2014 · in Flóra · 272 Comments

Stíllinn á aldinunum (hnetunum) lengist við þroskun, herðist og nýtist við að dreifa fræjum. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Stíllinn á aldinunum (hnetunum) lengist við þroskun, herðist og nýtist við að dreifa fræjum. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Ættkvíslin Geum L. (biskupshattar) tilheyrir rósaætt (Rosaceae) ásamt rúmlega hundrað kvíslum öðrum. Til kvíslarinnar teljast um það bil 60 tegundir (50-70), sem vaxa vítt um heiminn, eins og í Evrópu, Asíu, Norður- og Suður-Ameríku, Afríku og á Nýja Sjálandi.

Yfirleitt er hér um að ræða fjölærar, hærðar jurtir; stönglar eru uppréttir, blöð þrífingruð til þríflipótt. Stofnblöð jafnan fjaðurskipt og er oddbleðillinn stærstur. Blóm eru tvíkynja, einstæð eða í skúfum á endum greina. Bikarblöð fimm að tölu, með utanbikar, krónublöð fimm, gul eða rósrauð. Margir fræflar og frævur. Aldin er hneta með einu fræi og langa trjónu, sem er sveigð í endann.

Aðeins ein tegund vex villt hér á landi, fjalldalafífill (G. rivale L.), en þó nokkrar eru ræktaðar í görðum og sumar þeirra hafa slæzt út fyrir. Eru það bæði hreinar tegundir en einnig kynblendingar og af þeim flestum eru til allnokkur yrki.

Nafnið Geum er fornt plöntuheiti; ef til vill úr grísku geuo, það sem smakkast.

 

Greiningarlykill að fjalldalafífli og fáeinum ræktuðum tegundum:

1 Blóm drúpa. Krónublöð og bikarblöð sveigjast ekkert út á við, bikarblöð dökkrauð, krónublöð hvít í fyrstu, verða síðan holdrauð með dökkar æðar …………………….. fjalldalafífill (G. rivale)

1 Blóm upprétt. Krónublöð og bikarblöð sveigjast út á við, bikarblöð græn …………… 2

2 Krónublöð rauð …………………….. rauðdalafífill (G. quellyon)

2 Krónublöð gul ……………………………………… 3

3 Stönglar og blöð mjúkhærð …………………… 4

3 Stönglar og blöð stríðhærð ……………………. 5

4 Stofnblöð bilbleðlótt með mjóan oddbleðil. Krónublöð um 0,5 cm löng. Um 70 aldin í kolli …….. austdalafífill (G. urbanum)

4 Stofnblöð bilbleðlótt með mjög stóran, ávalan oddbleðil, um 10 cm breiðan. Krónublöð um 1 cm löng. Um 250 aldin í kolli …….. laufdalafífill (G. macrophyllum)

5 Allt að 40 cm á hæð. Axlarblöð 0,5 cm á lengd ………….. strýdalafífill (G. hispidum)

5 Allt að 90 cm á hæð. Axlarblöð 2-3 cm á lengd ………….. kjarrdalafífill (G. aleppicum)

 

 

Fjalldalafífill – Geum rivale L.

Fjölær jurt með grófan og dökkan jarðstöngul; vöxtur hans fer fram að mestu leyti efst í honum og teygir hann sig því upp úr moldinni smám saman. Hann er hulinn af legglöngum, bleðlóttum stofnblöðum (minna á kálblöð); þau eru sígræn. Stöngulblöð eru styttri og minni, oftast þríbleðlótt.

Fjalldalafífill drúpir höfði. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Fjalldalafífill drúpir höfði. Ljósm. ÁHB.

 

Blómstönglar eru mjúkhærðir; við blómgun hleypur í þá vöxtur og þeir verða uppréttir. Blómin eru stór og drúpa, 5-deild, dumbrauð á lit og sitja á löngum og hærðum stilkum; þau virðast oft vera lokuð, því að blómblöð sveigjast ekki út á við. Bikarblöð eru hærð, dumbrauð og álíka löng og krónublöð, með utanbikar. Krónublöð eru í fyrstu rauðgul með dökkar æðar en verða holdrauð, þá er á líður. Margir fræflar og frævur. Stíll er stríðhærður efst en langhærður efst. Aldin eru hnetur, þar sem stíll hefur lengzt og orðið að löngum krók, sem festist auðveldlega við dýr og menn, sem fara hjá.

Vex í rökum og gróskumiklum lautum og hvömmum. Algengur um landið. Blómgast í júní. 10–50 cm á hæð.

Rótin geymir ýmis ilm- og bragðefni (nellikuangan), sem voru notuð sem krydd bæði í mat og drykk (engjanegulrót). Hún þykir og styrkjandi, köldueyðandi og svitaleiðandi, og er því góð til þess að öðlast þrótt eftir niðurgang og farsóttir. Einnig brúkaðist hún við matarólyst, blóðsótt og til þess að strá í vond sár. Af rótinni má bæði gera duft og seyði.

Fjalldæla, biskupshattur og sólsekvía eru gömul nöfn á tegundinni.

Viðurnafnið riviale er komið af latneska orðinu rivus, lækur og þá er átt við, að plantan vex oft í rekju á lækjarbökkum.

Á stundum rekast menn á mjög ummynduð blóm, þar sem margir fræflar hafa þroskast í krómnublöð og verða þau þá ofkrýnd; einnig geta bikarblöð verið laufblaðakennd og stór.

 

Nöfn á erlendum málum:

Enska: water avens, nodding water avens, nodding avens, drooping avens, purple avens, cure all, indian chocolate, water flower

Danska: Eng-Nellikerod

Norska: enghumleblom, hommelblomster, humlegras

Sænska: humleblomster, fårkummern, fårpuppor, brud och brudgum, jungfru Marie nycklar, jungfru Marie snusdosa

Finnska: ojakellukka, niittykellukka

Þýzka: Bach-Nelkenwurz, Bach-Benedikte, Kapuziner, Wasser-Nelkenwurz

Franska: benoîte des ruisseaux, benoîte

 

 

Slæðingar og ræktaðar plöntur af Geum-ættkvísl:

Geum quellyon Sweet (syn. G. chiloense Balb. ex DC. nom. inval. og G. coccineum auct., non Sibth. & Sm.) – Rauðdalafífill (skarlatsfífill).

Geum hispidum Fries – Strýdalafífill

 

Geum reptans L. – Skriðdalafífill

 

Geum aleppicum Jacq. – Kjarrdalafífill

 

Geum urbanum L. – Austdalafífill

 

Geum macrophyllum Willd. – Laufdalafífill

Laufdalafífill (Geum macrophyllum) hefur hér stolizt út úr garði og komið sér fyrir undir sólríkum vegg. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Laufdalafífill (Geum macrophyllum) hefur hér stolizt út úr garði og komið sér fyrir undir sólríkum vegg. Ljósm. ÁHB.

ÁHB / 27. desember 2014

P.s. Höfundur hlaut styrk frá Hagþenki 2014 til ritstarfa.

 

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