Krossblómaætt – Brassicaceae

Skrifað um September 11, 2015 · in Flóra · 119 Comments

Hjartarfi (Capsella bursa-pastoris). Ljósm. ÁHB.

Hjartarfi (Capsella bursa-pastoris). Ljósm. ÁHB.

Krossblómaætt (Brassicaceae, áður nefnd Crusiferae) dregur nafn sitt af fjórum krónublöðum, sem mynda jafnarma kross, ef horft er beint ofan á blómið. Til ættar teljast ein- til fjölæringar, aðallega jurtir. Stöngull er uppréttur eða uppsveigður, ógreindur eða lítt greindur, á stundum holur. Blöð eru stakstæð, fjaðurstrengjótt, axlblaðalaus og mynda oft stofnhvirfingu.

Blómskipun er klasi, en þar sem hann er háblaðalaus, lítur hann út sem hálfsveipur. Blóm eru regluleg, undirsætin, tvíkynja með fjögur krónublöð og fjögur bikarblöð (4+4). Krónublöð eru hvít, gul eða rauð; oft standa þau skamma stund og falla burt við aldinþroskun. Fræflar eru sex, fjórir langir í innri kransi og tveir stuttir í ytri kransi. Fræva er ein, gerð úr tveimur fræblöðum. Aldin er tvíblaða og tvírýmt hýðisaldin, sem nefnist skálpur. Gerð og lögun skálpsins er oft eitt bezta greiningareinkenni. Í honum eru tvö veggstæð fræsæti, og opnast með tveimur lokum neðan frá og uppeftir. Fræsætin standa eftir á skálpleggnum, eins og umgerð um skilrúmið, sem er himnukennt og minnir á skjáglugga, þegar lokin eru dottin af. Stíllinn á frævunni stendur lengi og myndar stutta eða langa trjónu á skálpinum.

Til ættarinnar teljast um 3700 tegundir, sem skiptast niður á um 330 ættkvíslir. Stærstu kvíslirnar eru Draba með 365 tegundir, Cardamine með um 200, Erysimum og Lepidium með um 230 tegundir hvor og Alyssum með 195 tegundir. Hér á landi eru 20 tegundir í tíu ættkvíslum, sem telja má til íslenzku flórunnar, en ívið fleiri vaxa eða hafa vaxið hér sem slæðingar. Af þekktum tegundum má nefna hrafnaklukku, skarfakál og hjartarfa og í görðum er næturfjóla mjög algeng. Margar nytjajurtir tilheyra ættinni ei(ns og gulrófa og káltegundirnar grænkál, rauðkál, blómkál, spergilkál, hvítkál og nokkrar fleiri, sem eru afbrigði einnar tegundar, Brassica oleracea. Repja Brassica napus L. var. oleifera) er talsvert ræktuð hérlendis, einkum sem fóðurkál handa kúm og saufé, en gerðar hafa verið tilraunir til þess að framleiða matarolíu og lífdísil. Úr fræi Sinapis alba er framleitt sinnep og svartsinneb úr Brassica nigra.

Hér á eftir fer greiningarlykill að ættkvíslum. Nöfn á íslenzkum tegundum koma fyrst í lykli og latneskt heiti í sviga; nöfn á slæðingum og ræktuðum plöntum koma fyrst á latínu en íslenzk nöfn eru í sviga.

Síðar verður fjallað sérstaklega um hverja ættkvísl og tegundir innan hennar.

cardamine

Hrafnaklukka. Ljósm. ÁHB.

Greiningarlykill að ættkvíslum krossblómaættar:

1. Öll blöð allaga, aðeins í stofnhvirfingu. Mjög smá (1-6 cm á hæð) vatnaplanta ……. alurt (Subularia aquatica)
1. Blöð flöt. Smáar til stórar plöntur, í þurrlendi …………….. 2

2. Skálpur opnast ekki við þroskun; fellur af í heilu lagi eða er liðskiptur …….. 3
2. Skálpur opnast við þroskun …………… 7

3. Krónublöð gul …………………… 4
3. Krónublöð hvít, fjólublá eða á stundum gulhvít með dökkar æðar ……. 5

4. Skálpur hangir, með eitt fræ. Mjög sjaldgæfur slæðingur ……………….. Isatis tinctoria (litunarklukka)
4. Skálpur uppréttur, með mörg fræ. Krónublöð ljósgul með dökkar æðar. Ræktaðar tegundir ………. Raphanus (hreðkur)

5. Blöð mjög stór, blágræn, um 1,5 m á hæð. Ræktuð ………… Crambe cordifolia (risakál)
5. Blöð öðru vísi ……………… 6

6. Stöngull uppsveigður eða jarðlægur; blöð bugsepótt eða flipótt. Hárlaus fjörujurt ………. fjörukál (Cakile maritima)
6. Stöngull uppréttur; blöð fjaðurskipt eða heil, stinnhærð. Ræktaðar tegundir ………. Raphanus (hreðkur)

7. Skálpur hjartlaga, sporöskjulaga eða egglaga, í mesta lagi þrisvar sinnum lengri en hann er breiður …… 8
7. Skálpur langur, að minnsta kosti þrisvar eða fjórum sinnum lengri en hann er breiður ………………… 22

8. Skálplok hvelfd í þverskurði ……………….. 9
8. Skálplok flöt …………………………….. 12

9. Krónublöð hvít ………………… 10
9. Krónublöð gul …………………. 11

10. Hávaxin jurt. Blöð ekki kjötkennd. Sjaldgæfur slæðingur ……………. Armoracia rusticana (piparrót)
10. Lágvaxin til miðlungi stór jurt, nálægt sjó eða á háfjöllum. Blöð kjötkennd ……….. skarfakál (Cochlearia)

11. Skálplok perulaga. Sjaldgæfir slæðingar ……………….. Camelina (doðrur)
11. Skálplok kringlótt til pylsulaga ……………………… lórur (kattarjurtir) (Rorippa)

12. Skilveggur í skálpi samsíða lengdarási skálps …………. 13
12. Skilveggur í skálpi hornréttur á lengdarás skálps ……… 18

13. Skálplok stórt, um 2 cm á breidd. Krónublöð fjólublá. Ræktuð ……….. Lunaria (mánasjóðir)
13. Skálplok lítið. Krónublöð hvít eða gul …………… 14

14. Krónublöð gul ……………………. fjallavorblóm (Draba oxycarpa)
14. Krónublöð hvít …………………… 15

15. Krónublöð greinilega misstór. Ræktuð …………. Iberis (kragablóm)
15. Krónublöð jafnstór ……….. 16

16. Krónublöð heil eða oddnumin, oft með blaðsprotum sem hafa hvirfingsstæð blöð ……….. vorblóm (Draba)
16. Krónublöð djúpt klofin …………………………. 17

17. Lítil, einær jurt. Stöngull blaðlaus. Blómgast mjög snemma vors …………. vorperla (Draba verna)
17. Miðlungi stór eða stór, fjölær jurt. Stöngull mjög blöðóttur. Mjög sjaldgæfur slæðingur ……. Berteroa incana (hvítduðra)

18. Eitt fræ í hverju skálphólfi. Slæðingar …………………. Lepidium (perlur)
18. Tvö eða fleiri fræ í hverju skálphólfi ………………….. 19

19. Blöð kjötkennd. Skálplok hvelfd ………………………… skarfakál (Cochlearia)
19. Blöð ekki kjötkennd. Skálplok slétt eða hvelfd …………… 20

20. Skálpur vængjalaus, þríhyrndur eða öfughjartlaga. Hærð planta ………….. hjartarfi (Capsella bursa-pastoris)
20. Skálpur vængjaður, kringlóttur eða sporbaugóttur ……………. 21

21. Einær planta, blöð ekki í stofnhvirfingu. Slæðingur ………… Thlaspi arvense (akursjóður)
21. Tví- til fjölær planta með blöð í stofnhvirfingu. Mjög sjaldgæfur slæðingur …………… Noccaea caerulescens (varpasjóður)
22. Skálptrjóna (stíll) löng, margfalt lengri en þvermál skálps. Krónublöð gul ……….. 23
22. Skálptrjóna (stíll) stutt eða nær engin. Krónublöð hvít, gul, rauð, fjólublá eða gulhvít með dökkar æðar ……. 24

23. Skálplok með 3-5 greinilegar samsíða taugar; skálptrjóna ferstrend eða hliðflöt. Slæðingar ……………. Sinapis (mustarðar)
23. Skálplok með eina greinilega taug; Skálptrjóna sívöl. Ræktaðar tegudir ………………….. Brassica (kál)

24. Krónublöð hvít, rauð eða rauðfjólublá ……. 25
24. Krónublöð gulhvít eða gul, oft með dökkar æðar ……. 30

25. Öll blöð fjöðruð ……………….. hrafnaklukkur (Cardamine)
25. Öll blöð, að minnsta kosti hin efri, heil eða lítið fjaðurskert …….. 26

26. Stöngull blaðlaus. Örsmá hárlaus háfjallajurt ……….. jöklaklukka (Cardamine bellidifolia)
26. Að minnsta kosti eitt blað á stöngli ……………….. 27

27. Stíll með djúpt tvíklofnu fræni ……… 28
27. Stíll með heilt fræni. Blóm hvít (geta verið ofurlítið rauðbláleit) ……… 29

28. Frænisendar lausir hvor frá öðrum. Ræktaður fjölæringur ……………… Hesperis matronalis (næturfjóla)
28. Frænisendar loða saman. Mjög sjaldgæfur slæðingur …………… Malcolmia maritima (martoppur)

29. Stöngulblöð oftast mörg, greipfætt, gróftennt …………………. skriðnablóm (Arabis alpina)
29. Stöngulblöð fá, ekki greipfætt, heilrend ……………………… melablóm (Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea)

30. Öll blöð heil …………………………… 31
30. Að minnsta kosti neðri blöð fjaðurskert ……. 33

31. Blöð ekki greipfætt ……………………. aronsvendir (Erysimum)
31. Blöð meira eða minna greipfætt ………….. 32

32. Stöngulblöð tennt. Krónublöð fagurgul. Slæðingur ……. Barbarea vulgaris (garðableikja)
32. Stöngulblöð heilrend. Krónublöð gulhvít eða hvít. Sjaldgæfur slæðingur ……… Conringia orientalis (garðablaðka)

33. Blöð tví-þrí-fjaðurskipt með striklaga bleðla ………………….. Descurainia (þefjurtir)
33. Blöð ekki tví-þrí-fjaðurskipt og ef bleðlar, eru þeir breiðir …….. 34

34. Skálpar liggja þétt að stöngli. Sjaldgæfur slæðingur ……………………… Sisymbrium officinale (götudesurt)
34. Skálpar meira eða minna útstæðir ……………………. 35
.
35. Skálptrjóna um 2 mm á lengd. Mjög sjaldgæfur slæðingur ………………………… Erucastrum gallicum (hundakál)
35. Skálptrjóna lítil sem engin …………………….. 36

36. Skálplok taugalaus ………………………………………. lórur (kattarjurtir) (Rorippa)
36. Skálplok með greinilegar taugar (3-5). Slæðingar ……………. Sisymbrium (desurtir)

 

 

Tegundir innan krossblómaættar:

Arabidopsis petraea (L.) – melablóm

Arabis alpina L. – Skriðnablóm

Armoracia rusticana P.Gaertner, B.Meyer & Scherb. – piparrót

Barbarea stricta Andrz. – hlíðableikja
Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata (Opiz ex J.Presl & C.Presl) Fr., – akurbleikja
Barbarea vulgaris W.T.Aiton – garðableikja

Berteroa incana (L.) DC. – hvítduðra

Brassica napus L. – Gulrófa, repja
Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera (DC.) Metzg. – (repja).
Brassica napus L. ssp. rapifera Metzg. – (gulrófa)
Brassica oleracea L. – garðakál
Brassica rapa L. ssp. campestris (L.) Clapham – arfanæpa
Brassica rapa L. ssp. rapa, – næpa

Cakile maritima Scop. ssp. islandica (Goud.) Hyl. ex Elven – fjörukál

Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex DC. – hárdoðra
Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz – akurdoðra

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. – hjartarfi

Cardamine bellidifolia L. – jöklaklukka
Cardamine flexuosa With. – kjarrklukka
Cardamine hirsuta L. – lambaklukka
Cardamine pratensis L. subsp. angustifolia (Hook.) O.E. Schulz – hrafnaklukka

Cochlearia groenlandica L. – fjallaskarfakál
Cochlearia officinalis L. – skarfakál

Conringia orientalis (L.) Dumort. – káljurt

Descurainia incana (Bernh. ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Dorn – gráþefjurt
Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl – þefjurt

Draba arctogena (E.Ekman) E.Ekman – heiðavorblóm
Draba glabella Pursh. – túnvorblóm
Draba incana L. – grávorblóm
Draba lactea Adams – snoðvorblóm
Draba nivalis Liljeblad – héluvorblóm
Draba norvegica Gunn. – hagavorblóm
Draba oxycarpa Sommerf. – fjallavorblóm
Draba verna L. – vorperla

Vorperla (Erophila verna). Ljósm. ÁHB.

Vorperla (Draba verna (Erophila verna)). Ljósm. ÁHB.

Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E.Schulz – hundakál

Erysimum cheiranthoides L. – akurgyllir
Erysimum repandum L. – hafnagyllir
Erysimum strictum P.Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. – aronsvöndur

Aronsvöndur (Erysimum strictum). Ljósm. ÁHB.

Aronsvöndur (Erysimum strictum). Ljósm. ÁHB.

Hesperis matronalis L. – næturfjóla

Isatis tinctoria L. – litunarklukka

Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br. – akurperla
Lepidium densiflorum Schrad. – Þyrpiperla
Lepidium heterophyllum Benth. – hnoðperla
Lepidium latifolium L. – strandperla
Lepidium neglectum Thell. – kringluperla
Lepidium perfoliatum L. – slíðurperla
Lepidium ruderale L. – haugperla
Lepidium sativum L. – garðperla
Lepidium virginicum L. – virginíuperla

Malcolmia maritima (L.) R.Br. – martoppur

Noccaea caerulescens (J. & C.Presl) F.K.Mey. – varpasjóður

Raphanus raphanistrum L. – akurhreðka
Raphanus sativus L. – ætihreðka

Rorippa islandica (Oeder & Murray) Borbas – kattarjurt
Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek – brunnperla
Rorippa sylvestris (L.) Besser – flækjujurt

Sinapis alba L. – Hvítur mustarður
Sinapis arvensis L. – arfamustarður

Sisymbrium altissimum L. – risadesurt
Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. – götudesurt

Subularia aquatica L. – alurt

Thlaspi arvense L – akursjóður

 

ÁHB / 11. september 2015

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