Grímublómaætt ─ Scrophulariaceae

Skrifað um January 15, 2013 · in Flóra · 174 Comments

Blómagröf af megingerðum blóma innan grímiblómaættar.

Blómagröf af megingerðum blóma innan grímublómaættar.

Innan grímublómaættar (Scrophulariaceae) eru um 275 ættkvíslir með um það bil 5000 tegundum. Hér á landi eru 7 innlendar ættkvíslir með 14 tegundum; að auki eru einar 3 ættkvíslir aðrar og um 13 tegundir, sem vaxa hér sem slæðingar. Þá má geta þess, að allmargar tegundir ættarinnar eru ræktaðar í görðum.
Tegundirnar eru ýmist einærar eða fjölærar, flestar eru jurtir en nokkrar lágvaxnir runnar og örfá tré. Stöngull er uppréttur eða jarðlægur, með gagnstæð, stakstæð eða sjaldan kransstæð blöð; blöð sjaldan í stonfhvirfingu. Blöð ýmist stilkuð eða stilklaus; heil til fjaðurskipt, engin axlarblöð. Blómskipun er klasi, ax og skúfur eða einstæð blóm.
Blóm eru tvíkynja, yfirsætin, óregluleg (sjaldan regluleg). Bikar samblaða, 4- eða 5-skiptur. Króna samblaða, oftast 5-skipt, varakróna til hjóllaga, á stundum með spora. Fræflar jafnan 4, sjaldan 2 eða 5. Fræva tví-blaða, oft óregluleg í lögun, einn stíll. Aldin er tvírýmt hýði.

Blóm af æruprís (Veronica). Teikn. ÁHB.

 

Blóm af dýragini (Linaria). Teikn. ÁHB.

Blóm af dýragini (Linaria). Teikn. ÁHB.


Tegundir ættarinnar vaxa um allan heim, en flestar eru þó í tempruðu beltunum og til fjalla í hitabeltinu. Margar tegundir ættarinnar eru hálfsníkju- og sníkjujurtir, það er að segja þær draga til sín næringu frá nærliggjandi tegundum. Þetta eru lokasjóður, smjörgras, augnfró, krossjurt og tröllastakkur. Ein tegund, vættarrós (Lathraea squamaria L.), er án allrar laufgrænu og er því hrein sníkjuplanta. Hún vex ekki hér. Ýmsar tegundir hafa verið nýttar til lækninga.

Gerðar hafa verið umfangsmiklar rannsóknir á hinum ýmsu tegundum innan grímublómaættar. Þær hafa leitt í ljós, að skyldleika er háttað á annan veg en menn hafa ætlað af ytra útliti tegundanna. Það má því búast fastlega við því, að innan fárra ára verði miklir flutningar á ættkvíslum í aðrar ættir.

Lykill að íslenzkum ættkvíslum og helztu slæðingum:

1 Fræflar tveir ………………………………….. æruprísar (Veronica)
1 Fræflar fjórir (eða fimm) ………………………………….. 2
2 Blöð fjaðurskipt ………………………………………….. tröllastakkar (Pedicularis)
2 Blöð ekki fjaðurskipt …………………………………………………. 3
3 Blöð í stofnhvirfingu; mjög lítil vatna- eða vætujurt …….. efjugrös (Limosella)
3 Blöð ekki í stofnhvirfingu …………………………………………….. 4
4 Króna með spora; slæðingar ……………………………………………… dýragin (Linaria)
4 Króna án spora ……………………………………………………………. 5
5 Bikar fimm-skiptur; slæðingar ……………………………………. 6
5 Bikar fjór-skiptur …………………………………………………………. 7
6 Blöð stakstæð …………………………………….. fingurbjargir (Digitalis)
6 Blöð gagnstæð ………………………………………………. apablóm (Mimulus)
7 Bikar uppblásinn, hliðflatur; hýði kringlótt, fræ vængjuð …. lokasjóðir (Rhinanthus)
7 Bikar óuppblásinn, pípu- eða bjöllulaga ………………………………. 8
8 Fjölær jurt. Króna blá ……………………………………………… hanatoppar (Bartsia)
8 Einær jurt. Króna hvít, ljósbláleit eða gul ………………………………… 9
9 Króna hvít eða ljósbláleit með dökkar æðar og gulan blett á neðri vör …. augnfró (Euphrasia)
9 Króna gul ……………………………………………………………… krossjurtir (Melampyrum)

 

ÁHB / 15.1. 2013

Viðbót: Sennilega er réttast að telja ættkvíslirnar

Rhinanthus, Pedicularis, Melampyrum, Euphrasia og Bartsia til ættarinnar Orobanchaceae, sem hefur verið nefnd sníkjurótarætt (Stóra blómabók Fjölva 1972).

Margar tegundir í ættkvíslinni Mimulus hafa nú verið fluttar í kvíslina Erythranthe Spach, sem er innan apablómaættar, Phrymaceae (sjá hér).

ÁHB / 18.1. 2013

 

 

 

 

 


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