Scorpidium – krækjumosar

Skrifað um October 29, 2016 · in Mosar · 137 Comments

Ættkvíslin Scorpidium (Schimp.) Limp. – krækjumosar – telst til Calliergonaceae (hrókmosaættar) ásamt sex öðrum, en af þeim vaxa fimm hér á landi:

Straminergon (seilmosar)
Loeskypnum (hómosar)
Calliergon (hrókmosar)
Warnstorfia (klómosar)
Sarmentypnum (kengmosar)

Ein ættkvísl til viðbótar telst til ættarinnar en vex ekki hér á landi: Hamatocaulis.

Til kvíslar teljast aðeins þrjár tegundir og vaxa þær allar hér á landi. Þetta eru miðlungsstórar til mjög stórar plöntur, grænar, brúnar eða rauðar. Um stöngul er glærþekja og miðstrengur. Ein tegund sker sig verulega úr, er með breið-egglensulaga, nærri kringlótt, mjög kúpt blöð, stutt klofið rif eða tvöfalt. Hinar tvær eru með egglaga, mjó-egglaga eða egglensulaga blöð, sem mjókka fram í langan eða stuttan odd. Hornfrumur eru fáar en stórar og ná stutt inn frá blaðrönd.

Plöntur eru ein- eða tvíkynja. Stilkur frekar langur.

 

Lykill að tegundum innan Scorpidium:

1 Oftast stórvaxin tegund. Blöð 1,0-2,4 mm á breidd, mjög kúpt, sporlaga eða nærri kringlótt. Rif stutt klofið eða tvöfalt. Glærfrumur þekja minnst fjórðung af stöngli ………………………………. S. scorpioides
1 Meðalstórar tegundir. Blöð 0,4-1,1 mm á breidd, kúpt, egglaga eða egglensulaga. Rif einfalt, nær upp fyrir blaðmiðju. Glærfrumur þekja allan stöngul ………………………….. 2

2 Plöntur einkynja. Frumur í blaði 14-95(-120) µm á lengd með þverum eða snubbóttum endum. Sjaldan eða aldrei með gróhirzlur .… S. cossonii
2 Plöntur tvíkynja. Frumur í blaði (60-)90-140(-170) µm á lengd með símjókkandi endum. Oft með gróhirzlur ……………… S. revolvens

 

Athuga sérstaklega:
Mjög mikilvægt er að skoða frumur í blaði þeim megin við rif, sem blaðoddur beygir sig yfir. Sjá mynd.

Öruggast er að skoða blaðfrumur á því svæði, sem örin bendir á.

Öruggast er að skoða blaðfrumur á því svæði, sem örin bendir á.

 

Scorpidium scorpioides (Hedw.) Limpr. – tjarnakrækja

Stórir, tútnir og 10-20 cm langir stönglar, óreglulega eða lítið greinóttir. Þeir eru grænir, brúnir, gulbrúnir eða rauðir. Blöð sitja þétt á sprotaendum og sveigjast eins og hali á sporðdreka. Glærfrumur um stöngul þekja að minnsta kosti fjórðung af ummáli. Blöð oft nærri kringlótt til breiðegglaga, mjókka oftast snögglega fram í snubbóttan eða broddyddan enda eða mjókka smám saman fram í odd, mjög kúpt, 1-2,4 mm á breidd. Rif tvöfalt eða á stundum einfalt og klofið, mjög sjaldan riflaus, nær sjaldnast upp að blaðmiðju.

Frumur 32-200 µm á lengd, frumuendar þverir eða snubbóttir. Hornfrumur vel afmarkaðar, fáar, tútnar og litlausar, ná skammt inn að rifi.

Plöntur einkynja og gróhirzlur mjög sjaldséðar.

Vex á kafi í vatni. Algeng um mest allt land.

Scorpidium scorpioides. Teikn. ÁHB.

Scorpidium scorpioides. Teikn. ÁHB.

Tegundin er jafnan mjög auðþekkt. Þó að hún líti allt öðru vísi út en hinar tvær innan sömu ættkvíslar, hafa erfðarannsóknir leitt í ljós, að stöngull, hornfrumur og ytri opkrans eru sömu gerðar og á hinum tegundunum tveimur.

 

 

Scorpidium cossonii (Schimp.) Hedenäs – lindakrækja

Plöntur miðlungsstórar, 5-10 cm eða lengri, reglulega fjaðurgreindar, grænar, gulgrænar, brúnar, brúnrauðar. Stöngull er alþaktur glærfrumum. Blöð egglaga til breiðegglaga, mjókka smám saman (á stundum snögglega) fram í boginn, yddan framhluta, kúpt, 0,5-1,1 mm á breidd. Rif einfalt, nær upp fyrir blaðmiðju.

Scorpidium cossonii. Teikn. ÁHB.

Scorpidium cossonii. Teikn. ÁHB.

Frumur 14-95(-120) µm á lengd, endar þverir eða snubbóttir, sumir mjókka örlítið. Horn eru vel afmörkuð og hronfrumur fáar, tútnar og litlausar, ná skammt inn að rifi.

Plöntur einkynja og eru gróhirzlur óþekktar hér á landi.

Vex í hvers konar votlendi. All algeng um land nema einna sízt á Suðurlandi.

Blaðfrumur í S. cossonii. Teikn. ÁHB.

Blaðfrumur í S. cossonii. Teikn. ÁHB.

Þá sjaldan tegundin lifir á kafi í vatni er hún mjög smávaxin. Helzt er hætta á að rugla henni saman við eftirfarandi tegund, S. revolvens. – Á það má benda, að S. revolvens er tvíkynja og oft með gróhirzlur, sem hin er ekki. Í greingarlykli var minnzt á ólíka frumugerð í blöðum, sem er dágott einkenni. Litareinkenni eru ekki örugg, en þó má fara nærri um tegundina. S. revolvens er jafnan purpurarauð, dökkrauð eða svartleit en S. cossonii fremur græn, gul- eða rauðbrún með brúnrautt rif og blaðgrunn.

 

Scorpidium revolvens (Sw. ex anon.) Rubers – mýrakrækja

Plöntur miðlungsstórar til stórar, 6-12(-20) cm á lengd, ekki tútnar, grænar, rauðar, purpuralitar, brúnrauðar eða svartleitar. Plöntur lítið og óreglulega greinóttar eða fjaðurgreindar. Glærfrumur um stöngul vel þroskaðar. Blöð egglaga til egglensulaga, mjókka smám saman, á stundum snögglega, fram í mjóan, boginn framhluta, kúpt, 0,5-1 mm á breidd. Rif einfalt, nær upp fyrir blaðmiðju.

Blaðfrumur í S. revolvens. Teikn. ÁHB.

Blaðfrumur í S. revolvens. Teikn. ÁHB.

Frumur 61-140(-178) µm á lengd, endar mjókka smám saman og eru jafnan yddir, sumir mjókka aðeins örlítið. Horn eru vel afmörkuð og hronfrumur fáar, tútnar og litlausar, ná skammt inn að rifi.

Plöntur eru tvíkynja og nokkuð oft með gróhirzlur.

 

Scorpidium_revolvens. Teikn. ÁHB.

Scorpidium_revolvens. Teikn. ÁHB.

Vex í alls konar votlendi, jafnvel á kafi. Mjög algeng um land.

 


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