Plöntur eyða ólofti – Fréttabréf um vinnuvernd

Skrifað um July 18, 2012 · in Gróður · 397 Comments

Plöntur eyða ólofti

Franski efnafræðingurinn Lavoisier er jafnan talinn upphafsmaður að nútíma efnafræði. Hann er kunnastur fyrir að uppgötva þátt súrefnis í bruna árið 1774 og kollvarpaði þar með kenningunni um »flógiston« en það átti að vera fólgið í öllum brennanlegum efnum og valda bruna. Tveimur árum áður hafði hann birt forvitnilega grein, þar sem hann greindi frá niðurstöðum athugana sinna á lífi plantna. Hann hafði komizt að því, að plöntur bættu andrúmsloftið eftir að það hafði verið skemmt af völdum dýra og manna. Ekki kunni Lavoisier að skýra þetta nánar en engu að síður þóttu þetta allmerkar niðurstöður á sinni tíð. Skömmu seinna eða 1779 tókst Hollendingi, Jan Ingenhousz að nafni, að sýna fram á það, að plönturnar bættu andrúmsloftið því aðeins að þær væru hafðar í ljósi. Ingenhousz þessi var læknir að mennt og er reyndar þekktastur fyrir það að hafa verið líflæknir Maríu Theresíu og Georgs þriðja konungs á Englandi.

Ástæðan fyrir því, að þetta er rifjað hér upp, er sú, að nýlegar rannsóknir á vegum bandarísku geimvísindastofnunarinnar NASA hafa sýnt, að plöntur auka ekki aðeins súrefnið í andrúmsloftinu heldur eru mikilvirkar við að eyða skaðlegum lofttegundum. Þegar orkukreppan reið yfir á árunum 1973 og 74 var kapp lagt á að einangra allar byggingar til þess að spara orku og sett voru upp loftræsitæki. Með því að koma í veg fyrir að kalt útiloft kæmist inn í byggingar var unnt að lækka orkukostnað. Sá böggull fylgdi þó skammrifi, að samtímis versnaði inniloftið, þrátt fyrir hreinsibúnað, og alls kyns húsasóttir skutu upp kolli.

Með nýjum mælitækjum, sem voru hönnuð í sambandi við geimrannsóknir (Skylab III), var sýnt fram á, að fjöldi skaðlegra lofttegunda jafnt í íbúðarhúsnæði sem skrifstofubyggingum var ógnvekjandi, á þriðja hundraðið. Lofttegundirnar stafa af margvíslegum byggingarefnum í gólfi, þaki og veggjum. Í húsgagnaiðnaði eru einnig notuð alls kyns efni í límtrjám, plasti og fleiru. Að auki streyma lofttegundir frá þvottaefnum, flugnaeitri, hárúða, lími, tölvum og fjölda annarra hluta, sem eru daglega í notkun. Mörg þessara efna hafa áður verið óþekkt og því hafa menn ekki kunnað að varast þau og nútíma loftræsitæki koma ekki að fullum notum. Sýnt var fram á, að sum efnin eru sterkir krabbameinsvaldar en önnur valda þreytu, höfuðverk, ofnæmi og sjúkdómum í öndunarfærum.

Eftir ítarlegar rannsóknir á þessu sviði komust menn að því, að vissar tegundir af plöntum hreinsuðu andrúmsloftið miklu mun betur en ýmis hreinsibúnaður. Eins og kunnugt er taka plöntur lofttegundir upp í gegnum loftaugun á neðra borði blaðanna. Úr andrúmsloftinu taka þær upp koldíoxíð og nota það ásamt vetni, sem fæst úr vatni, til þess að framleiða lífræn efni úr ólífrænum við ljóstillífun, en súrefninu skila þær út í andrúmsloftið. Við rannsóknirnar kom í ljós, að þær taka ekki aðeins upp koldíoxíðið heldur líka allflestar skaðlegu lofttegundirnar. Plöntur með mikinn blaðmassa hreinsuðu andrúmsloftið að jafnaði betur en aðrar, en gerð laufblaða hefur líka áhrif á afkastagetu tegundanna. Sem dæmi má nefna, að tegundin Chlorophytum elatum fjarlægði 2,29 míkrógrömm af formaldehyði fyrir hvern fersentímetra af laufblaði á sex klukkustundum. Þessi tegund er náskyld veðhlaupara (C. comosum), sem er algeng stofuplanta hér á landi. Og svipaða sögu er að segja af kærleikstréinu (Philodendron bipinnatifidum) sem er meðal auðveldustu plantna í stofuræktun. Af öðrum afkastamiklum hreinsiplöntum má nefna nornafléttu (Epipremnum aureus), kölluflekkur af ættkvíslinni Aglaonema og drekatré (Dracaena fragans).

Eitt af skaðlegri efnum í andrúmslofti í híbýlum manna er bensen, þótt í litlum mæli sé. Það er litlaus, eldfimur vökvi og er mikilvægt hráefni í efnaiðnaði og er notað í framleiðslu litarefna og lyfja. Bensen er baneitrað og krabbameinsvaldandi. Þar reyndust glitkarfa (Gerbera jamesonii) og vissar tegundir af prestafíflum af ættkvísinni Chrysanthemum eyða 2 til 4 míkrógömmum af benseni á aðeins sex tímum á hvern fersentímetra af laufblaði.

Rannsóknir þessar halda nú áfram af miklum krafti og er verið að velja þær stofuplöntur, sem eru afkastamestar. Hér er mjög athyglisvert efni á ferðinni, sem fyllsta ástæða er til að fylgjast með af fullri alvöru. Á síðari árum hefur það þótt all sérkennilegt, að vanlíðan fólks á mörgum vinnustöðum hefur aukizt verulega, þrátt fyrir hlýrri íverustaði og bættan aðbúnað að því menn hafa talið til þessa. En nú hefur það komið ótvírætt í ljós, sem ekki hefur tekizt að mæla áður, að mikil einangrun húsa, dýrindis húsbúnaður og alls kyns tæki, sem ætluð voru til þess að létta mönnum erfiði og prýða heimili og vinnustaði, gefa frá sér skaðlegar lofttegundir, og spilla svo andrúmslofti, að margt fólk er illa haldið af þrálátum veikindum. En lausnin á þessum vanda er þegar í sjónmáli, hún felst í því að rækta hin fegurstu blóm.

Heimildir:
* Siv Söderlund, 1989: Här är växterna som rensar luften! Arbetsmiljö 5/89
* Bergljot Gundersen, 1990: Levende luftfiltere. Norsk Hagetidend
11/12.

Greinin birtist í fréttabréfi um vinnuvernd. Vinnueftirlit ríkisins 4. tbl. 10. árg 1993

Leitarorð:

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