Ítala í afréttinn Almenninga í Rangárþingi eystra

Skrifað um April 1, 2015 · in Almennt · 2,294 Comments

Ár 2015, 1. apríl, lauk yfirítölunefnd, þau Anna Margrét Jónsdóttir, ráðunautur, Ágúst H. Bjarnason, plöntuvistfræðingur og Skarphéðinn Pétursson, hæstaréttarlögmaður og formaður nefndarinnar, málinu:

Ítala í afréttinn Almenninga í Rangárþingi eystra

með svohljóðandi:

Ú R S K U R Ð I

I.

Formáli

Almenningar eru landssvæði norður af Þórsmörk í Rangárvallasýslu. Almenningar eru landssvæði norður af Þórsmörk í Rangárþingi eystra (Vestur-Eyjafjallahreppi, Rangárvallasýslu). Þeir liggja á milli Þröngár í suðri og Fremri (Syðri)-Emstruár í norðri; en að vestan markast þeir af Markarfljóti og að austan af Merkurjökli.

 

Áhöld hafa verið um stærð afréttarins, en við yfirítölumat verður stærð hans miðuð við 4209 ha til samræmis við mælingu af kortagrunni Landmælinga Íslands (IS50V) 2013 og voru þá mörk afréttarins dregin inn á kortagrunninn til samræmis við ofangreinda lýsingu (Fanney Gísladóttir Landbúnaðarháskóla Íslands (LbhÍ)).

Almenningar hafa frá fornu fari verið afréttur Vestur-Eyfellinga. Á hinn bóginn var Þórsmörk í eigu bænda í Fljótshlíðarhreppi að hálfu á móti kirkjunni í Odda. Þar sem Oddakirkja leigði beitarítak annaðhvort Fljótshlíðungum eða Vestur-Eyfellingum voru fjallskil þar ýmist á einni eða tveimur höndum.

Til að gera langa sögu stutta, samþykktu bændur í Fljótshlíðarhreppi og sóknarprestur í Odda að afsala sér beitarrétti á Þórsmörk 1920. Árið 1924 var Þórsmörk afgirt en ekki aftraði það með öllu að fé kæmist inn í mörkina fyrr en 1927, þá er land handan Krossár upp að Eyjafjallajökli og að Steinholtsá (það er Teigstungur, Guðrúnartungur, Múlatungur, Goðaland og Merkurtungur) var tekið inn í girðinguna.

Afréttargirðing sem Skógræktin ríkisins reisti norðan Þórsmerkur, sem liggur að Almenningum var 17 km löng. Girðingarstæði meðfram Þröngá var afar erfitt og ekki varð girt upp að jökli. Um og eftir 1974 var reynt að græða upp land á Almenningum fyrir tilstilli Landgræðslu ríkisins. Þá var og gripið til ýmissa annarra ráða næsta áratuginn, eins og að fækka fé, seinka upprekstri og flýta göngum.

Þá var það 1990, að bændur í Vestur-Eyjafjallahreppi samþykktu að reka ekki fé á Almenninga næstu tíu árin að því tilskildu að Landgræðsla ríkisins myndi ásamt þeim vinna að gróðurbótum á þeim tíma. Þessi samningur rann út árið 2000, en bændur héldu áfram landbótum og ráku ekki fé á afréttinn. Árið 2009 stóð til að hefja aftur upprekstur á Almenninga. Ekkert varð þó úr upprekstri það sumar né næstu tvö árin (2010 og 2011), meðal annars vegna eldgoss í Eyjafjallajökli. Sumarið 2012 var fé ekið inn á Almenninga, en óverulegur fjöldi.

Þá um haustið 2012 varð sýslumaðurinn á Hvolsvelli við beiðni sveitarstjórnar Rangarþings eystra, um að annast skipun ítölunefndar.

II.

Málsmeðferð

Með bréfi sýslumannsins á Hvolsvelli, dags. hinn 6. september 2012, voru eftirtaldir skipaðir til þess að ákveða ítölu í afréttinn með tilvísan í 21. gr. laga nr. 6/1986 um afréttamálefni, fjallskil o.fl.;

Guðni Þorvaldsson formaður, Ólafur Dýrmundsson og Sveinn Runólfsson. Ítölunefnd klofnaði í afstöðu sinni til ítölu og skilaði áliti í tvennu lagi. Nefndarmennirnir Guðni Þorvaldsson og Ólafur Dýrmundsson stóðu saman að ítöluúrskurði og skiluðu ítölugerð, dags. 7. mars 2013, en nefndarmaðurinn Sveinn Runólfsson skilaði séráliti aðeins áður, eða hinn 27. febrúar 2013. Birting úrskurðarins fór fram dagana 18. og 19. mars 2013, skv. 24. gr. laga nr. 6/1986 um afréttamálefni, fjallskil o.fl.

Niðurstaða ítölunefndar var að ítala á afréttinn skyldi ákveðast stigvaxandi og ákvaðst hæfileg ítala fyrir árin 2013-2016, 50 tvílembur eða 150 kindur að hámarki ár hvert, 90 tvílembur árin 2017-2021 og 130 tvílembur frá og með sumrinu 2022. Niðurstaða sérálitsins var sú að ítala afréttarnins skyldi ákvörðuð 0, það er engin kind.

Alls bárust Atvinnu- og nýsköpunarráðuneytinu sex kröfur um yfirítölumat skv. 27. gr. laga nr. 6/1986 um afréttamálefni, fjallskil o.fl. Með bréfi ráðuneytisins, dags. 30. apríl 2013, var fallist á kröfu Skógræktar ríkisins um að kveða til yfirítölunefnd vegna, Almenninga Rangárþingi eystra.

Með erindisbréfi Atvinnu- og nýsköpunarráðuneytisins, dags. 30. apríl 2013, voru Skarphéðinn Pétursson hæstaréttarlögmaður, Ágúst H. Bjarnason, plöntuvistfræðingur og Anna Margrét Jónsdóttir, ráðunautur, skipuð í yfirítölunefnd á grundvelli 1. mgr. 27. gr. laga um afréttamálefni o.fl. nr. 6/1986.

Yfirítölunefnd hefur frá skipun farið yfir gögn málsins sem fylgdu úrskurði ítölunefndar, séráliti, auk kærumálsgagna. Yfirítölunefnd aflað einnig frekari gagna, sem metin voru nauðsynleg. Þá fór nefndin á vettvang og skoðaði staðhætti hinn 9. júlí 2013, eins og nánar verður vikið að síðar.

Með erindi, dags. 24. maí 2013, fór Skógrækt ríkisins fram á að réttaráhrifum úrskurðar ítölunefndar yrði frestað með vísan til 29. gr. stjórnsýslulaga nr. 37/1993. Yfirítölunefnd hafnaði beiðninni með bréfi, dags. 28. júní 2013, með vísan til þess að undanþága ákvæðisins um frestun réttaráhrifa yrði ekki beitt í málinu að mati nefndarinnar.

Þá hélt nefndin fundi með öllum hagsmunaaðilum málsins á Hvolsvelli hinn 12. mars 2014.

Yfirítölunefnd boðaði til fundarins með hliðsjón af hagsmunaaðilum sem taldir eru í 18. gr. laga nr. 6/1986 um afréttamál, fjallskil o.fl. Þar segir í stafliðum a. til e., að eftirfarandi aðilar geti farið þess á leit að ítölu sé komið á eða breytt: a. einstakir bændur (félag landeigenda á Almenningum fer með forsvar), b. sveitarstjórn, c. stjórnir aðliggjandi fjallskilaumdæma (nefndin mat það óþarft að boða tilvitnaðar stjórnir), d. gróðurverndarnefnd og e. Landgræðsla ríkisins.

Auk framantalinna, var Skógrækt ríkisins gefinn kostur á að koma til fundar, sbr. úrskurð ráðuneytisins um hagsmuni hennar við ítölumatið.

Af hálfu allra boðaðra aðila mættu fulltrúar allra nema gróðurverndarnefndar sem afþakkaði boðið.

Á framangreindum fundum voru lögð fyrir nefndina ný gögn og reifuðu aðilar sjónarmið sín varðandi ákvörðun ítölu.

Í framhaldi funda með hagsmunaaðilum ákvað nefndin að taka boði Náttúrufræðistofnunar Íslands um að gróðurkort af Almenningum yrði klárað. Gróðurkortið var sent nefndarmönnum vorið 2014.

Sumarið 2014 og fram á haust barst nefndinni síðan talsverður fjöldi nýrra gagna og ljósmynda sem sýndu gróðurframvindu og fleira á Almenningum sumarið 2014.

Yfirítölunefnd kom alls formlega saman á sex fundum, en nefndin skiptist þess í milli á sjónarmiðum og gögnum sín á milli.

III.

Helstu forsendur ítölunefndar

Eins og áður var vikið að klofnaði ítölunefnd í afstöðu sinni til ítölu. Ítölunefndin lagði upp með, að „við ítölugerðina var eingöngu verið að áætla hversu margar kindur væri hægt að hafa á afréttinum án þess að hann bæri skaða af.“

Litið var til fjárfjölda á tveimur nærliggjandi afréttum og hann yfirfærður á Almenninga að breyttu breytanda.

Ítölunefndin setti fram skoðun sína á, hvað fælist í hóflegri beit. Meðal annars með vísan til vel þekktra staðreynda, eins og aukins fjölda tegunda í beitarlandi, minni sinumyndunar og fleiri atriði, sem óþarft er upp að telja að mati yfirítölunefndar.

Í séráliti er sérstaklega byggt á niðurstöðum „beitarþolsúttektar“ frá Landbúnaðarháskóla Íslands frá 20. desember 2011, (Almenningar – Ástand jarðvegs og gróðurs eftir Ólaf Arnalds og Ásu L. Aradóttur, Lbhí 2011), en þar segir m.a.: „Takmörkuð gróðurhula og útbreiðsla rofs er einnig langt utan þeirra marka sem skilgreina land sem beitarhæft og því geta Almenningar ekki talist beitarhæfir samkvæmt þessum viðmiðum.“

Í skýrslu þeirri, sem hér er vísað til er hvergi vikið að útreikningum á beitarþoli.

Auk þess má fullyrða í ljósi eftirfarandi umfjöllunar um ákvörðun ítölu annarsvegar og hins vegar efnistaka og umfjöllunaratriða í skýrslunni að skýrslan er ekki beitarþolsrannsókn í skilningi 22. gr. laga um afréttamál, fjallskil o.fl., þótt hún gæti hugsanlega fallið undir álitsgerð um beitarþol og notkun lands í skilningi 19. gr. sömu laga.

Á hinn bóginn er nokkuð ljóst, að báðir aðilar hafa nokkuð til síns máls. Yfirítölunefnd mun þó ekki byggja niðurstöðu sína á ofangreindum sjónarmiðum eingöngu heldur gera grein fyrir eigin niðurstöðum, þótt öll umfjöllun, röksemdafærsla, gagnasöfnun og úrvinnsla ítölunefndar og sérálitsins, komi til skoðunar af hálfu yfirítölunefndar.

IV.

Athugasemdir yfirítölunefndar

a. Ákvörðun ítölu

Ekki verður annað ráðið en að sú regla sem birtist í 46. kap. búnaðarbálks (öðru nafni landsleigubálks) Jónsbókar hafi almennt gilt hér á landi, en reglan er sú að „allir þeir menn sem afrétt eigu skulu reka fé sitt á miðja afrétt.“ Með öðrum orðum skal ekki láta fé ganga í heimahaga yfir sumartímann og beinlínis lögboðið að á afrétt skuli reka, sé hann fyrir hendi.

Að sama skapi hefur fjáreigendum snemma verið ljóst að afréttur ber einungis svo ágang fjár upp að vissu marki. En réttur til upprekstrar á afrétt var talinn verðmætur og mælti 51 kap. búnaðarbálks fyrir um hvernig telja skyldi í afrétt ef menn töldu sig mishaldna; „Tólf bændur þeir er næstir búa skulu telja fé í afrétt eður haga svo að þeir ætli eigi muni feitara þó að færa sé….Þeir skulu svo í haga telja að þeim þikki til fulls skipað.“

Einnig má nefna að skaðabótaskylt var hleypa svínum á afrétt vegna skemmdarhættu á afrétti af þeirra völdum og á síðari tíma spruttu upp talsverðar deilur um upprekstur hrossa vegna ofbeitarsjónarmiða. Var í því skyni beitt margskonar umreiknireglum fyrir ítölu hrossa, en reyndar einnig geldneytis, sauðfjár og jafnvel mjólkurkúa, ef svo bar við.

Óumdeilt ætti að minnsta kosti að vera að ákvörðun ítölu er frávik frá þeirri almennu reglu, að sá hópur sem til afréttar telur, ákveður að jöfnu hversu mikið fé skal á afrétt reka. Ítala er með öðrum orðum inngrip í slíkan upprekstrarétt og fyrirkomulag hans.

Má í þessu sambandi vísa til 7., 15., 16. og 31. gr. núgildandi laga nr. 6/1986 um afréttamálefni, fjallskil o.fl. og 4. og 5. mgr. 23. og 24. gr. laga nr. 17/1965 um landgræðslu, en síðarnefndi lagabálkurinn kveður á um skyldu landgræðslustjóra til þess að krefjast ítölu teljist löndum ofboðið, en að sama skapi skuli leitast við að bæta þann tekjumissi sem ítala kann að skapa búanda eins og það er orðað.

Að sama skapi hafa alla tíð gilt strangar reglur og viðurlög gagnvart því að sinna ekki fjallskilum, sbr. nú V. og VII. kafla laga nr. 6/1986 um afréttamálefni, fjallskil o.fl.

Fyrstu lagaákvæðin, eftir Jónsbók, um ítölu voru sett með lögum nr. 85/1943. Ekki mun hafa komið til ákvörðunar ítölu skv. þeim lögum, en þar sagði í 6. gr.

„…[ítölunefnd skal] svo meta ítölu, að fullskipað sé í land, en eigi ofskipað, svo að fénaður megi vel þrífast og eigi sé hætta á, að land spillist sakir ofbeitar.“

Árið 1958 komu hin fyrstu lög um ítölu til endurskoðunar og hinn 23. maí 1959 voru samþykkt á Alþingi ný lög um ítölu, nr. 39/1959. Ekki voru gerðar efnisbreytingar á ákvæðum 6. gr. laganna, hvað varðaði sjónarmið um mat á ítölu.

Lög um ítölu endurskoðuð á áttugasta og níunda löggjafarþinginu og þar samþykkt ný lög um afréttamálefni, fjallskil o.fl. nr. 42/1969.

Í athugasemdum sem fylgdu frumvarpinu kemur fram að eldri lög um ítölu nr. 39/1959 hafi verið tekin upp í frumvarpi til laganna. Því var áðurnefndur texti 6. gr. laga nr. 39/1959 tekinn upp í 20. gr. laganna, en breytt til þess vegar að þar sagði:

„Ítala skal byggjast á beitarþolsrannsókn á viðkomandi landi samkvæmt 40. gr. laga nr. 17 24. apríl 1965, um landgræðslu ( innsk. en 40. gr. vísaði til 23. gr. sömu laga þar sem landgræðslustjóra var gert skylt að krefjast ítölu væri það niðurstaða mats skv. 40. gr. að löndum væri ofboðið). Ítala skal svo ákvörðuð, að fullskipað sé í landið en ekki ofskipað miðað við beitarþol.“

Með lögum nr. 43/1976 var lögum nr. 42/1969 breytt allnokkuð. Var efnisákvæði 20. gr. um ákvörðun ítölu breytt og varð 22. gr. laganna. Eftir breytinguna var ákvæðið orðað svo:

„Ítala skal svo ákvörðuð, að fullskipað sé í landið en ekki ofskipað miðað við beitarþol. Byggja skal á beitarþolsrannsóknum svo sem við verður komið, jafnframt skal tekið tillit til aðstæðna hverju sinni.“

Í meðförum löggjafans hefur sem sagt annars vegar verið felldur niður texti sem vísaði sérstaklega til ofbeitar, 6. gr. laganna frá 1943 og 1959 og eins hefur ákvæði 20. gr. laga nr. 42/1969 verið breytt á þann veg að fallið var frá því að ítala skyldi byggjast á beitarþolsrannsóknum sem nánar var mælt fyrir um í lögum um landgræðslu og kom orðalagið „byggja skal á beitarrannsóknum svo sem við verður komið“ í stað skyldunnar.

Ekki verða þessar umbreytingar löggjafans skildar á annan veg en að verulega hafi verið vikið frá vægi þeirra sjónarmiða sem ákvörðun ítölu átti að byggjast á og vörðuðu ofbeit og rannsóknir á beitarþoli.

Má því til stuðnings vísa til almennra athugasemda með frumvarpi því sem varð að lögum nr. 43/1976 en þar segir: „Ítala er róttækasta ráðstöfunin, sem gripið verður til auk beinnar friðunar landsins, og margt má gera til verndunar og bóta á beitilandinu, áður en henni er beitt.“

Enda var efnisreglum núverandi 15. og 16. gr. bætt inn í lögin, en þar er að finna heimildir til verndar beitilands með ákveðnum aðgerðum fjallskiladeilda.

Augljóst er af framangreindu að löggjafinn ætlast til að þeim sé beitt áður en til ítölu kemur, en ekki samhliða ákvörðun um ítölu eða í úrskurði um ítölu.

Um ákvörðun ítölu fer nú eftir fyrirmælum laga nr. 6/1986 um afréttamálefni, fjallskil o.fl., en 22. gr. laganna er óbreytt frá lögum nr. 42/1969, eins og þeim var breytt með lögum 43/1976 og hljóðar því enn svo:

„Ítala skal svo ákvörðuð, að fullskipað sé í landið en ekki ofskipað miðað við beitarþol. Byggja skal á beitarþolsrannsóknum svo sem við verður komið, jafnframt skal tekið tillit til aðstæðna hverju sinni.“

Mæla lögin fyrir um að þeir aðilar sem tilgreindir eru í 18. gr. laganna geti, ef þeir telja ekki nóg að gert, krafist frekari skerðingar á upprekstri, með sérstakri ítölu. Þó er einnig hægt að ákveða með samkomulagi að ítala skuli ákveðin, 4. mgr. 20. gr.

Í báðum tilvikum skal skipa ítölunefnd sem ákveður ítöluna, til samræmis vð áðurnefnda 22. gr. laga nr. 6/1986 um afréttamálefni, fjallskil o.fl.

Samspil 20. gr. og 22. laganna er að vísu nokkuð sérkennilegt.

Áður var því lýst hvernig færi ef samþykkt var á fundi að gera ítölu. Þá væri þeirri ákvörðun vísað til ákvörðunar ítölunefndar skv. 22. gr. Í 8. mgr. 20. gr. segir hins vegar að ef tillaga um að láta gera ítölu er felld, sé heimilt að vísa málinu til landgræðslustjóra sem fer með málið skv. 23. gr. landgræðslulaga nr. 17/1965 og skylt sé að hlíta þeirri ítölu sem þannig er ákveðin.

Umrædd 23. gr. landgræðslulaga vísar aftur á móti til þess að ítölu skuli ákveða með vísan til 5. gr. laga um ítölu nr. 39/1959, sem reyndar eru nú lög nr. 6/1986 og þá er hringnum lokað aftur og endar þar sem hann hófst í 22. gr. laga nr. 6/1986 um afréttamálefni, fjallskil o.fl.

Af því sem að framan greinir, er því hvorki óvarlegt né róttækt að álykta að það er þeirra sem afréttar skuli njóta að ákveða fjölda búfjár sem á afrétt skal telja. Hafa þeir við þá ákvörðun til hliðsjónar sjónarmið 15. gr. laga nr. 6/1986 um afréttamálefni, fjallskil o.fl. sem mælir fyrir um skynsamlega nýtingu afréttar.

Við ákvörðun ítölu skal fyrst og fremst leggja til grundvallar, að um íþyngjandi ákvörðun er að ræða fyrir þá sem njóta réttar til upprekstrar á afrétt. Við ákvörðun um ítölu má líta til beitarþolsrannsókna að því marki sem þær geta gefið vísbendingu um hvort fullskipað er eða ofskipað í afréttinn að dómi nefndarinnar.

Beitarþol verður að sama skapi að skýra með hliðsjón af framangreindu og því sem ráðið verður af ákvæðum laga nr. 6/1986 um afréttamálefni, fjallskil o.fl. og eðli máls. Afrétturinn verður að bera þann fjölda sauðfjár sem ítala nær og tryggi að sama skapi að fjöldinn rýri ekki afréttinn að því marki að hann beri ekki sama fjölda að ári, með hliðsjón af gróðurmyndun og endurnýjun gróðurs.

Ofbeit miðast því að lögunum, eingöngu við þarfir búfjáreigandans til þess að fá fé æskilega feitt af fjalli sem og hentuga og sjálfbæra endurnýjun landsins til þess að viðhalda fóðurmagni til handa fé sem skipað er á afrétt.

Af framangreindu má einnig ráða að önnur sjónarmið og forsendur geta alls ekki talist til tækra skýringarkosta við ákvörðun ítölu skv. 22. gr. laga nr. 6/1986 um afréttamálefni, fjallskil o.fl. Mætti þar nefna málefnalega sjónarmið um aðra nýtingu afrétta en til beitar, s.s. tengda ferðamennsku og útivist, fagurfræðilega ásýnd lands, gróður- og trjávernd sem fer ekki saman við sauðfjárbeit, landgræðslu í öðrum tilgangi en til fóðrunar á búfé.

Einnig mætti nefna sjónarmið um fjölbreytileika lands og fánu og svo framvegis. Slíkum sjónarmiðum má finna stoð víðsvegar í lögum. Í dæmaskyni mætti nefna lög um landgræðslu, lög sem taka til náttúruverndar og laga um skógrækt.

Ákvörðun um ítölu er því ekki ákvörðun um nýtingu lands, flokkun þess eða hvað kann að vera talið æskilegt að gera út frá öðrum sjónarmiðum en að beita þar búfé. Þessa misskilnings virðist gæta víða og ekki síst í þeim fjölda athugasemda sem liggja fyrir í málinu og nefndin hefur kynnt sér og lesið í opinberri umfjöllun um ítölugerð, hvort sem er í þessu máli eða öðrum.

Í lok þessa kafla er einnig rétt að geta þess að 27. gr. sbr. 22. gr. laga um afréttamál, fjallskil o.fl. verður ekki skilin á annan veg en að yfirítölumat sé sjálfstætt gagnvart ákvörðun ítölu afréttarins, sem eðlilega tekur mið af ítölumati og forsendum þess, en ákvörðun ítölu af yfirítölunefnd sé á engan hátt bundin þeim forsendum eða niðurstöðum, hvorki meirihluta né minnihluta eða þeim rökum sem þar eru yfirleitt færð fram.

Yfirítölunefnd telur að ítölumat geti einungis verið ein tala og þannig fullskipað í landið miðað við forsendur ítölumatsins. Stendur sú ítala óbreytt, þar til hún er endurskoðuð. Endurskoðun skal ekki fara fram fyrr en eftir a.m.k. 4 ár sbr. 29. gr. laganna.

Að mati nefndarinnar er ekki heimild í lögum nr. 6/1986 um afréttamál, fjallskil o.fl. að ítala geti ákvarðast stighækkandi, líkt og gert er í úrskurði ítölunefndar. Ítala hækkar ekki né lækkar án þess að til endurskoðunar komi á ítölunni aftur, til samræmis við ákvæði laganna þar að lútandi. Væri það enda afar órökrétt að endurskoðun ítölu fyrir 2023 færi fram 2013, líkt og ítölunefnd gerir ráð fyrir.

 

b. Gróður

Eftirfarandi kafli er byggður á skoðunum og lýsingum í séráliti við yfirítölumatið, sem meirihluti nefndarinnar er sammála.

Allar þær plöntur, sem saman koma á afmörkuðu svæði, stóru eða litlu eftir atvikum, mynda það, sem nefnist gróður. Plönturnar mynda samofna heild í samræmi við ytri og innri skilyrði, þar sem ríkir ákveðinn stöðugleiki. Á grundvelli ákveðinna aðferða er unnt að flokka gróður og skilgreina ákveðin skipulagsstig eða einingar: gróðurblettur, gróðurhverfi, gróðursveit, gróðurfylki og loks gróðurlendi.

Þegar rætt er um gróður án þess að tilgreina visst skipulagsstig, er notað orðið gróðurfélag. Í annan stað er vert að benda á, að við eðlilegar aðstæður er gróðurinn í nokkrum hæðarlögum: trjálag, runnalag, graslag og svarðlag. Auk þessara fjögurra laga má bæta jarðvegslagi við, sem er háð efri lögum.

Gróður, sem nær að þroskast við náttúrlegar aðstæður, nær innan ákveðins tíma svo nefndu hástigi (climax). Hástigs-gróður er ekki ein gerð gróðurs á hverjum stað, heldur getur verið um nokkur gróðurfélög að ræða.

Hástigs-gróður hvers staðar, er það gróðurfélag, sem þolir best sveiflur í ytra umhverfi í áranna fjöld. Uppbygging gróðurs er þannig, að hver tegund fyllir það rúm, sem hún þolir, í sambýli við aðrar tegundir á svæðinu.

Eins og áður segir ríkir ákveðinn stöðugleiki í hverju gróðurfélagi, enda þolir það talsvert álag frá ytra umhverfi. Engu að síður leiða ýmiss konar inngrip ytri áhrifa til þess, að breytingar verða á gróðurfélagi. Með engu móti er unnt að fjalla um allar slíkar breytingar í úrskurði sem þessum öðrum en þeim er tengist beit.

c. Almenningar og beitarþol

Ekki er samstaða innan nefndarinnar um þau sjónarmið og forsendur sem hér á eftir koma og rakin verða. Vísast um það efni, til sérálits eins nefndarmanns sem fylgir úrskurði þessum.

Almenningar voru gróðurkortlagðir á vegum Rannsóknarstofnunar landbúnaðarins sumarið 1966 (Ingvi Þorsteinsson, 1973). Þar metur Ingvi að 1492 ha. séu með einhverjum gróðri eða samtals 914 ha. af algrónu landi (um 23%). Metur hann það þá svo að landið sé í afturför enda mikil beit á því á þeim tíma.

Náttúrufræðistofnun Íslands hefur nú endurteiknað gróðurkortin sem gerð voru á þessum tíma. Þau eru byggð á vettvangsgögnum frá 1966 og uppfærð af nýju myndkorti, innrauðum Spot 5 og Rapid eye gervitunglamyndum.

Samkvæmt þeim eru um 1.263 ha. með 75% gróðurþekju eða meira eða tæp 32% afréttarins. Samanlögð gróðurþekja skv. töflu 1 er um 36%.

Heildarflatarmál hér er aðeins minna en viðmið nefndarinnar, 4209 ha, sem skýrist af því að um 200 ha hafa komið undan jökli síðan upphafleg gróðurkortlagning fór fram og eru því ekki kortlagðir.

Tafla 1. Flatarmál gróðurþekjuflokka á Almenningum skv. gróðurlendakorti Náttúrufræðistofnunar

 

Gróðurþekja (%) ha km2 % af heild
<10 (lítt eða ógróið) 1721 17,21 43
25 (þ) 423 4,23 11
50 (z) 561 5,61 14
75 1148 11,48 29
>90 (algróið) 115 1,15 3
Vatn 36 0,36 1
Samtals 4004 40,04 100

Gróðurflokkun Nytjalands (Tafla 2) gefur ekki ólíka mynd og gróðurkort Náttúrufræðistofnunar. Gróið land frá náttúrunnar hendi, þ.e. gras, mólendi, mosi, kjarr og birkiskógar eru 636 ha.

 

 

Lítið gróið land reiknast reyndar talsvert meira en hjá Náttúrufræðistofnun en er þó ekki mjög fjarri því ef lagðir eru saman flokkarnir <10% gróið og 25% gróið. Ef reiknað er með 50% þekju á hálfgróna landinu, 5% þekju þar sem lítt er gróið og 75% þekju í uppgræðslunum fást 1.385 ha samanlögð gróðurþekja eða 30% af 4596 ha og þá 33% ef miðað er við 4209 ha.

 

Tafla 2. Gróður á Almenningum samkvæmt Nytjalandsgrunninum í apríl 2014.

 

gróður

hektarar (ha)

Birkiskógur 27
Grös, mólendi, mosi, kjarr 609
Hálfgróið land 784
Lítið gróið 2847
Landgræðsla fyrir 1990 52
Landgræðsla fyrir 1990-2010 235
Straum- og stöðuvötn 20
Jöklar og fannir 22
Samtals: 4596


Ólafur Arnalds og Ása L. Aradóttir skrifuðu árið 2011 skýrslu fyrir LbhÍ, um um ástand jarðvegs og gróðurs á Almenningum að beiðni Landgræðslu ríkisins. Þau leggja til grundvallar gróðurkort Rala frá 1965 og 1977 en fá gjörólíkar niðurstöður en tilgreindar eru í skýrslu Ingva Þorsteinssonar „Gróður og beitarþol í Þórsmörk“ frá 1973 þar sem hann tekur saman niðurstöður gróðurkortlagningar í Þórsmörk, Almenningum, Stakkholti og Steinsholti.

Í skýrslunni segir að niðurstöður gróðurkorta Rala gefi 560 ha með gróðri og samanlagða gróðurhulu 343 ha. Þarna er mikið misræmi.

Þá styðjast skýrsluhöfundar einnig við ritið Jarðvegsrof á Íslandi sem gefið var út af Landgræðslu ríkisins og Rala árið 1997.

Samkvæmt því riti eru ekki nema 3% Almenninga vel grónir. Aðrir uppgefnir flokkar í þeirri skýrslu heita „auðnir“, „rýrt“ og „fremur rýrt“.

Ekki virðist gert ráð fyrir neinu þar á milli sem verður að teljast nokkuð sérkennileg flokkun og gefur ekki tilefni til mats á gróðurþekju. Þau benda á að skv. rofkortlagningu í ritinu Jarðvegsrof á Íslandi frá 1997 sé talsvert rof (rofflokkur 3) á um 40% Almenninga og mikið rof (rofflokkur 4 og 5) á um 47 % Almenninga.

Þó það komi ekki fram í skýrslu LbhÍ er tekið fram í ritinu Jarðvegsrof á Íslandi að rof tengt gróðri sé aðeins 4% en rof tengt auðnum og fjöllum 75%. Í grófum dráttum má skipta rofi í annars vegar rof sem veldur tapi á jarðvegi og gróðurlendi (rof tengt gróðri) og í öðru lagi rof tengt auðnum en þar eru t.a.m. melar þar sem lítið er af gróðri og jarðvegi (auðnir/fjöll) (Ólafur Arnalds o.fl. 1997).

Einnig styðjast skýrsluhöfundar við SPOT mynd sem tekin var síðsumars 2010 eða örfáum mánuðum eftir gos í Eyjafjallajökli. Þá fóru skýrsluhöfundar í vettvangsferð í ágúst 2011 eða árið eftir gos í Eyjafjallajökli. Rýrir það mat skýrsluhöfunda á grónu landi að mati yfirítölunefndar.

Í lokaorðum skýrslu LbhÍ frá 2011 um ástand jarðvegs og gróðurs kemur fram að aðeins teljist tæp 13% Almenninga grónir. Nýjustu gögn, þ.e. gróðurkort Náttúrufræðistofnunar Íslands, sýna talsvert aðra niðurstöðu eða 36% gróðurþekju og leggur yfirítölunefnd þá niðurstöðu til grundvallar.

Skýrsla LbhÍ um ástand Almenninga byggir að stórum hluta á gróðurkortlagningu frá 1966 sem gefur talsvert aðra mynd af gróðurþekju svæðisins. Einnig byggir hún á rofkortlagningu frá 1997, en ekki liggur fyrir önnur rofkortlagning en sú.

Rof telst vissulega talsvert skv. skýrslunni Jarðvegsrof á Íslandi frá 1997 (Ólafur Arnalds o.fl 1997) en þar er þó tekið fram að einungis 4% þess því tengist gróðurlendi og er því ekki líklegt til þess að aukast við hóflega beit.

Vandasamt er að meta áhrif beitar á svona land. Gróðurþekja og tegundasamsetning eru þó lykilstærðir. Einnig verður að horfa til þátta s.s. gróðureyðingar og ógróinna svæða. Lítið hefur verið unnið af beitartilraunum hérlendis undanfarin ár og sjaldan skoðuð áhrif hóflegrar beitar á illa farið land.

Flestar rannsóknir benda þó til þess að beitarfriðun eða beitarstýring auki hraða gróðurframvindu í rofnu landi (Sigurður H. Magnússon og Kristín Svavarsdóttir, 2007).

Hversu mikið draga þurfi úr beit er þó misjafnt eftir aðstæðum og víða um land má finna dæmi um að land grói upp með hóflegri beit, bæði á hálendi og láglendi (Borgþór Magnússon o.fl. 2006).

V.

Niðurstaða yfirítölunefndar

Nýjustu gögn um gróðurþekju, þ.e. gróðurkort Náttúrufræðistofnunar Íslands, sýna 36% gróðurþekju afréttarins sem bendir til þess að gróðri hafi farið mikið fram síðan 1966.

Kortlagning Nytjalands styður niðurstöður gróðurkortlagningar Náttúrufræðistofnunar að mati yfirítölunefndar eins og áður er rakið.

Beitarþungi á afréttum landsins er afar mismikill og eru lægstu tölur samkvæmt upplýsingum Landgræðslu ríkisins um 0,01 ær/ha (Gústav M. Ásbjörnsson, 2015).

Til samanburðar má nefna að í umfangsmiklum beitartilraunum sem gerðar voru hérlendis á þremur afréttum á árunum 1975-1981, var það sem skilgreint var sem „lítill beitarþungi“ hvergi meira en 0,13 ær/ha. Það hlýtur því að teljast afar varfærnislega áætlað að leyfa beit 60 áa með lömbum á þá 4209 ha sem Almenningar teljast eða 0,01 ær/ha.

Hver ær hefði þá 70 ha lands eða 25 ha af grónu landi ef reiknað er með 36% gróðurþekju. Í ljósi aðstæðna á Almenningum hvað snertir rof og viðkvæman gróður er ástæða til að ætla beitarþunga hóflegan, svo gróðri haldi áfram að fara fram.

Lagt er til að komið verði upp ákveðnum vöktunarstöðum á afréttinum og fenginn óháður aðili s.s. Náttúrufræðistofnun Íslands eða Landbúnaðarháskóli Íslands til að fylgjast kerfisbundið með ástandi hans.

Lagt er til að farið verði með sama fé á afréttinn ár eftir ár til að gera það hagvant og stöðugt þar. Undantekning frá því væri þó að fé sem verði uppvíst að því að ganga ítrekað niður í Þórsmörk, verði ekki flutt aftur í Almenninga.

Lagt er til að beitartíminn verði í venjulegu árferði frá júlíbyrjun til septemberbyrjunar, að hámarki 65 dagar og aldrei sé farið með fé fyrr en gróður er kominn vel af stað.

Minnt er á mikilvægi þess fyrir áframhaldandi upprekstur á Almenninga að uppgræðslu á afréttinum verði haldið áfram samfara beitinni.

Úrskurðarorð:

Ítala í afréttinn Almenninga í Rangárþingi eystra ákveðst, 60 lambær, tvílembur, eða að hámarki 180 kindur samtals.

 

Skarphéðinn Pétursson Anna Margrét Jónsdóttir

 

 

Sératkvæði

Ágústs H. Bjarnasonar

Inngangur

Beitarmál hafa löngum verið þrætuepli milli manna hér á landi. Mönnum verður tíðrætt um það, hvort ofbeit eigi sér stað hér á landi eða ekki.

Gróðurfélög á Íslandi eru ekki nema um tíu þúsund ára gömul eða frá lokum ísaldar. Þetta þykir ekki hár aldur, en til samanburðar má nefna gróðurfélög um miðbik jarðar, sem eru um 40 milljón ára að aldri. Það tekur plöntur og aðrar lífverur æði langan tíma að laga sig að öllum aðstæðum á hverjum stað og mynda tiltekið líffélag, sem er í bezta samræmi við ytra umhverfi.

Um þetta samspil og framvindu þess eru til nokkrar kenningar, sem allar hafa sitthvað til síns ágætis.

Hér er um geypiflókið ferli að ræða, þar sem hver þáttur, lífrænn sem ólífrænn, hefur sitt að segja, ýmist beint eða óbeint. Hér gilda engin meðaltöl hvers þáttar, heldur miklu frekar hámarks- og lágmarksgildin.

Að þúsundum ára liðnum næst ákveðið jafnvægi á milli lífvera á hverjum stað, sem þolað hafa bæði súrt og sætt saman. Slík gróðurfélög ættu að vera gríðarlega þolin gagnvart ytri öflum. Þau hafa verið nefnd „hástigs-líffélög“

Hver svo sem þessi „hástigs-líffélög“ eru eða hafa verið, er þess ekki að vænta, að menn geti ræktað eitthvað eða komið á fót gróðurfélagi, sem jafnast á við náttúrleg gróðurfélög, sem eru margreynd í tímans rás. Þetta ættu menn ávallt að hafa í huga, þegar gróðri er spillt.

Helztu ástæður fyrir einsleitni gróðurfélaga geta einkum verið að tvennum toga. Annars vegar getur skýringin verið sú, að tegundafæð íslenzku flórunnar valdi því, að hvert gróðurfélag er öðru líkt. Slíkt má svo vera í nokkrum tilfellum, en þó er ljóst, að innan friðaðra svæða verður aðgreining gróðurfélaga miklu skýrari en utan þeirra.

Hins vegar er önnur skýring mun sennilegri og hún er sú, að einhver einn eða nokkrir þættir hafi slík áhrif, að þeir jafni út samkeppnisstöðu einstakra tegunda. Og sá þáttur, sem er sameiginlegur í þessum gróðurfélögum er einmitt beit og traðk. Hvoru tveggja veldur því, að áhrif annarra umhverfisþátta mega sín lítils.

Á beittu landi ná engar tegundir undirtökunum til þess að móta gróðurfélagið, heldur er því ávallt haldið á einhverju óstöðugu framvinduskeiði, sem meðal annars sést af því, að jafnan eru fleiri tegundir á beittu landi en óbeittu og hlutdeild (þekja) flestra er tiltölulega lítil.

Það er ótvírætt, að búsetan hefur haft veruleg áhrif á gróður. Ekki aðeins til að rýra gildi gróðurfélaga, heldur hefur beit gengið svo nærri landi, að það er örfoka.

 

Um gróður á Almenningum

Engum blöðum er um það að fletta, að á árum áður hafa Almenningar verið algrónir. Engar beinar heimildir eru þó til um gróður á Almenningum fyrr en hann var kortlagður 1966. Flestum mælingum ber að mestu saman og nægir hér að vísa í gagnagrunninn „Nytjaland“ (2013). Þar flokkast gróður á Almenningum þannig:

gróður

hektarar (ha)

Birkiskógur 27
Grös, mólendi, mosi, kjarr 609
Hálfgróið land 784
Lítið gróið 2847
Landgræðsla fyrir 1990 52
Landgræðsla fyrir 1990-2010 235
Straum- og stöðuvötn 20
Jöklar og fannir 22
Samtals: 4596

Á Almenningum skiptast því á vel gróin lönd og auðnir svo og ýmis gróðurstig þar á milli samkvæmt ofan nefndu yfirliti. Ekki er fjarri að áætla, að algróið land á Almenningum sé um 350 ha. Sumt af landinu þolir beit en annað ekki, og viðkvæm rofabörð virðast ekki hafa náð að gróa á tíma friðunar.

Engar viðhlítandi skilgreiningar eru þó til á því, sem kallast „hálfgróið“ (um 50%) og „lítið gróið“ (um 5%). Engu að síður reiknar meiri hluti ítölunefndar, að helmingur hálfgróins lands og 5% af lítið grónu landi sé „algróið“ og miðar beit út frá því. En það getur á engan hátt talizt sambærilegt. Mikill munur er á gróðri annars vegar í algrónu landi og hins vegar á hálfgrónu og lítið grónu landi með tilliti til tegundasamsetningar og beitarþols.

Á ferð yfirítölunefndar á Almenninga 2014 leit undirritaður eftir gróðri og eru meginniðurstöður þessar: Í stórum dráttum má skipta gróðurlendi gróflega í þessa flokka samkvæmt eigin athugunum:

i) mela

ii) nýgræður á melum

iii) moldir

iv) mosamóa

v) lyngmóa

vi) birkiskóg og -kjarr.

 

i) Á melum var dæmigerður bersvæðagróður með 2-10% gróðri.

ii) Á nýgræðum var þekja um 70-75%, og voru sáðgrös þar í miklum meirihluta; sumt var grænt (áborið) en annað dauflitt. Á allmörgum stöðum var hundasúra (Rumex asetocella), einkennandi fyrir óáborið land, sem áður fyrr hafði verið áborið. Ekki var mikið um innlendar tegundir í græðunum; sums staðar leifar melaplantna eins og melablóm (Arabidopsis petraea), geldingahnappur (Armeria maritima) og lambagras (Silene acaulis), en einnig nývöxtur birkis (Betula pubescens), loðvíðis (Salix lanata) og krækilyngs (Empetrum nigrum). Svörður mjög gisinn.

iii) Á moldum var hlaupagróður, blávingull (Festuca vivipara), ljónslappi (Alchemilla alpina), smjörgras (Bartsia alpina) og kornsúra (Bistorta vivipara), svo að örfá dæmi séu nefnd. Svörður gisinn eða enginn.

iv) Í mosamóum voru Racomitrium–tegundir ríkjandi í sverði með stinnastör (Carex bigelowii), krækilyngi, blóðbergi (Thymus praecox), túnvingli (Festuca rubra) og fleiri tegundum. Eftirtektarvert er, að birki og víðir eru á strjálingi og orðin nokkuð hávaxin.

v) Í lyngmóum var beitilyng (Calluna vulgaris), krækilyng, grasvíðir (Salix herbacea), grasleitar tegundir og strjálingur af víðiplöntum og birki. Svarðlag mjög breytilegt.

vi) Í birkiskógi /-kjarri voru tré allt að 4 m. Í Kápu var litið á undirgróður í gömlum en hrörlegu kjarri. Botngróður einkennist af grösum og tvíkímblaða tegundum. Svarðlag gróskumikið. – Rofabörð bera þess lítil merki, að sauðfé gangi þar um, því að birki og víðir eru þar víða vaxin yfir þau.

 

Engar gróðurmælingar voru gerðar þann dag, sem farið var um svæðið. Í mosamóum og lyngmóum var þó eftir því tekið, að flestar tegundir eru ýmist með mikla þekju (5-6) eða litla (1-2); það er að segja J-laga kúrva samkvæmt gróðurmælingaskala, sem kenndur er við Hult-Sernander-Du Rietz. Það bendir eindregið til þess, að síðframvinda gróðurs sé mjög virk og ein augljósustu merki um áhrif friðunar undanfarin ár.

Á nokkrum stöðum voru beitarskaðar mjög sýnilegir á gulvíði, birki og lúpínu. Féð hélt sig þar í námunda. Þar sem skaðarnir voru mestir var viðkvæmasta landið. Þar var grösugt, en grasleitar plöntur voru lítið sem ekkert bitnar. Svarðlag var mjög rýrt eða ekkert. Vitað er, að sauðfé sækist mjög eftir hlaupagróðri, sem einmitt einkennir nýgræður og mela. Þá er framvinda gróðurs á ákveðnum stigum mjög viðkvæm fyrir utan að komandi áhrifum og því er beit og traðk mjög skaðleg.

 

Almennt um gróður

Allar þær plöntur, sem saman koma á afmörkuðu svæði, stóru eða litlu eftir atvikum, mynda það, sem nefnist gróður. Plönturnar mynda samofna heild í samræmi við ytri og innri skilyrði, þar sem ríkir ákveðinn stöðugleiki. Á grundvelli ákveðinna aðferða er unnt að flokka gróður og skilgreina ákveðin skipulagsstig eða einingar: Gróðurblettur, gróðurhverfi, gróðursveit, gróðurfylki og loks gróðurlendi.

Þegar rætt er um gróður án þess að tilgreina visst skipulagsstig, er notað orðið gróðurfélag. Í annan stað er vert að benda á, að við eðlilegar aðstæður er gróðurinn í nokkrum hæðarlögum: Trjálag, runnalag, graslag og svarðlag. Auk þessara fjögurra laga má bæta jarðvegslagi við, sem er háð efri lögum.

Gróður, sem nær að þroskast við náttúrlegar aðstæður, nær innan ákveðins tíma svo nefndu hástigi (climax). Hástigs-gróður er ekki ein gerð gróðurs á hverjum stað, heldur getur verið um nokkur gróðurfélög að ræða.

Hástigs-gróður hvers staðar, er það gróðurfélag, sem þolir bezt sveiflur í ytra umhverfi í áranna fjöld. Uppbygging gróðurs er þannig, að hver tegund fyllir það rúm, sem hún þolir, í sambýli við aðrar tegundir á svæðinu.

Eins og áður segir ríkir ákveðinn stöðugleiki í hverju gróðurfélagi, enda þolir það talsvert álag frá ytra umhverfi. Engu að síður leiða ýmiss konar inngrip ytri áhrifa til þess, að breytingar verða á gróðurfélagi. Með engu móti er unnt að fjalla um allar slíkar breytingar hér; aðeins skal í sem stytztu máli vikið að áhrifum beitar.

 

Almennt um beit

Í sérhverju gróðurfélagi á sér ávallt stað ákveðið brottfall á lífrænu efni, greinar á trjám brotna, vindur feykir burtu laufi og fuglar og mýs taka oft drjúgan hluta af uppskeru hvers árs. Hér á landi verða ekki verulegar breytingar á gróðurfélögum, nema við beit stórra spendýra. Vissulega er erfitt að alhæfa í hverju breytingar af völdum beitar eru fólgnar. Þó má fara nærri um það.

Ef beit er innan vissra marka, nær gróðurinn að haldast í ákveðnu fari um langan aldur með stökum trjám. Trjálagið gisnar verulega, jafnvel hverfur, því að ungplöntur ná ekki að halda í við eðlilegan endurvöxt.

Þetta stig mætti kalla beitar-hástig. Það einkennist af því, að meðalvöxtur hvers trés er heldur meiri en í þéttum skógi og uppskera í graslagi er einnig meiri en í náttúrlegum skógi.

Í graslagi verða áberandi tegundir með jarðrenglum eða blöð í stofnhvirfingu. Talsverð fjölgun verður á tegundum í graslagi. En þær tegundir, sem bætast við eru jafnan skammlífar, ein- eða tvíærar, og þola illa samkeppni við aðrar tegundir. Þá má einnig gera ráð fyrir, að niturkærar tegundir nái bólfestu á beitarsvæðinu. Hlutdeild mosa breytist verulega, þar fækkar svo kölluðum »liggjandi tegundum« (pleurocarp) en »uppréttum tegundum« (akrocarp) fjölgar.

Meginbreyting frá upphaflegum gróðri er, að graslag í skógarbotni verður að svo nefndu mólendi, sem er til í ótal myndum, eins og lyngmór (krækilyngs- eða beitilyngsmói), grasmór og fjalldrapamór, svo aðeins fá dæmi séu nefnd. Einnig verða miklar og óæskilegar breytingar á svarðlagi, svo og í jarðvegslagi.

Gerist það hins vegar, að beitarþungi verði of mikill, myndast rof í svörðinn og eyðingaröflin ná undirtökunum. Oftast nær er lyngmór þá orðinn að grasmó, þegar þessu stigi er náð.

Mest er þó um vert að gera sér grein fyrir því, að rýrnun gróðurbreiðu gerist ekki jafnt á öllu svæðinu. Gróður er missterkur, jafnvel þó að sömu tegundir myndi hann. Við of mikið beitarálag lætur gróður oft undan á einum stað fremur en öðrum.

Nái rof að myndast getur svo farið, að land blási þar upp niður í berangur á fáum árum, en skammt undan getur gróður haldizt eðlilegur um mörg ár. Glögg merki um þetta er að sjá á Almenningum.

Það verður að hafa það í huga, að gróður hér á landi mótaðist löngu áður en sauðfé kom til. Hann er ekki lagaður að beit spendýra.

Það hefur því aldrei mótazt ákveðið jafnvægi á milli beitar spendýra og gróðurs eins og í löndum, þar sem grasbítar úr hópi spendýra hafa þróazt með framvindu gróðurs í þúsundir ára.

Það má leiða að því líkum, að aðflutt spendýr þurfi um fjórum sinnum meira fóður fyrir hvert kílógramm líkamsþunga en spendýra, sem lifa í náttúrlegum heimkynnum.

 

Beitarþol á Almenningum

Við ákvörðun á beitarþoli í úthaga þarf að huga að þremur meginatriðum:

i) Gróðurfélög verða að bera merki frumgróðurs, sem síðan má beita að ákveðnu beitar-hástigi.

ii) Svörður verður að vera nokkuð samfelldur, svo að lítil hætta sé á rofi.

iii) Framleiðsla á lífrænu efni þarf að vera nægjanleg til þess að framfleyta ákveðnum fjölda búfjár.

Algróin svæði, sem þola beit, eru fá, smá og strjál. Þar sáust lítil ummerki beitar. Í birkikjarri voru til dæmis lítil augljós merki um beit, enda má gera ráð fyrir, að féð sæki ekki þangað nema fyrst að vori og svo síðla sumars. Svörður var vel gróinn.

Það er algjörlega röng ályktun meiri hluta ítölunefndar 2013, að minni mosi í sverði, lítil sinumyndun og aukinn fjöldi tegunda á beittu landi, sé til hagsbóta fyrir þann gróður, sem þrífst á hverjum stað. Því er nefnilega þannig háttað, að gróður, sem myndast við náttúrlegar aðstæður á löngum tíma, er í beztu jafnvægi við ytri skilyrði og þolir mesta beit.

Í mólendi á svæðinu mátti greina augljós merki þess, að þau voru í framför, einkum lyngmórinn, eins og fram kemur hér að ofan. Í mosamónum voru slík merki ekki jafn augljós í graslaginu, enda við búið, að hann taki hægar við sér vegna áhrifa gamburmosa. Á hinn bóginn var hlaupinn vöxtur í runnalagið. – Talsverð merki sáust um beit á þessu svæði og svarðlag var mjög víða ósamfellt.

Án efa flokkast sumt af mólendinu sem „hálf gróið“. Beitargildi þess er mjög misjafnt og ræðst að hluta til af hlutdeild graskenndra tegunda. Þá er mjög misjafnt, hve mikla beit það þolir.

Þetta land er víða í mikilli framför og öll beit á því mun stórlega draga úr allri framvindu.

Á melum og nýgræðum mátti víða sjá áhrif beitar. Þar er svo nefndur hlaupagróður, sem féð eltir allt sumarið og fram á haust. Allur endurvöxtur á þessu landi er mjög hægur, nema mannshöndin komi þar að. Sé ekkert að gert, mun beit á þessu landi hefta allan endurvöxt.

Á því leikur enginn vafi, að framleiðsla á lífrænu efni er allmikil á svæðinu öllu. Sem slík gæti framleiðslan ein staðið undir allnokkrum fjölda lambáa. En framleiðsla á lífrænu efni getur aldrei orðið mælikvarði á beitarþoli, þegar gróðurfélög eru þegar mörkuð af mikilli beit

Meiri hluti svæðisins er uppblásinn vegna beitar og gróður á Almenningum er órafjarri því, sem kallazt getur beitarhæfur og gildir það um öll gróðurlögin, nema trjálagið.

 

Niðurstaða sérálits

Telja má öruggt, að tæp 90% af upphaflegum gróðri á Almenningum hafi eyðzt í ellefu hundruð ára sögu þjóðar. Landið mun seint eða aldrei ná sinni fyrri grósku með tilliti til jarðvegs og gróðurs. Það eina, sem getur orðið landinu til bjargar, er alger friðun í nokkra tugi ára. Vissulega má alltaf finna einstaka staði, sem einhverra hluta vegna hafa ekki látið verulega á sjá, en þeir eru smáir. Haldi beit áfram munu þeir engu að síður láta undan síga.

Almenningar voru gengnir úr sér sem haglendi löngu áður en menn viðurkenndu það í verki með því að draga úr beit og síðan að hætta að beita þá um 1980.

Áburðardreifing og fræsáning hefur verið stunduð um árabil á Almenningum, mikið til á örfoka landi. Ef tilgangurinn er sá einn að framleiða fóður handa kindum, væri miklu nær að rækta mela og sanda niðri í sveit og spara þannig mikinn kostnað. Sé tilgangurinn hins vegar sá að endurreisa gróðurlendi, er það borin von, ef sauðfé fær að ganga þar um.

Hér á landi hafa menn ekki skirrzt við að beita sauðfé á niðurnítt land svo lengi sem strá er þar að finna. Sá tími á að vera löngum liðinn.

Í 22. grein laga um afréttamálefni, fjallskil o.fl. nr. 6/1986 segir: „Ítala skal svo ákvörðuð, að fullskipað sé í landið en ekki ofskipað miðað við beitarþol. Byggja skal á beitarþolsrannsóknum svo sem við verður komið, jafnframt skal tekið tillit til aðstæðna hverju sinni. Búfé skal lagt í einingar með hliðsjón af tillögum sérfræðinga í fóðurfræði og beitarþolsrannsóknum. Ítölunefnd er heimilt að ákveða hlutfallstölu einstakra búfjártegunda, sé gróðurfar landsins mjög einhæft.“

Með vísan til ofan nefnds lagatexta, sem túlka má á þann veg, að skylt sé að nefna tölu fjár, mætti leyfa lausagöngu tíu lambáa eða jafngildi þeirra, sjái menn sér hag í því.

Á hinn bóginn er skynsamlegasta lausnin, að bændur komi sér upp 15-20 hektara beitarhólfi á Almenningum, ef til vill í samvinnu við Skógrækt ríkisins og Landgræðslu ríkisins, og fái að beita það að eigin vild undir vökulu auga rannsóknastofnunar, sem fylgist með framvindu gróðurs og áhrifum beitar.

Reykjavík, 1. apríl 2015

Ágúst H. Bjarnason

 

 

Greinileg merki beitar. Ljósm. ÁHB 2014.

Greinileg merki beitar. Ljósm. ÁHB 2014.

 

Leitarorð:

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