Hjónagrös – Pseudorchis

Skrifað um July 3, 2014 · in Flóra · 57 Comments


Hjónagras (Pseuorchis albida). Ljósm. ÁHB.

Hjónagras (Pseuorchis albida). Ljósm. ÁHB.

Ættkvíslin hjónagrös – Pseudorchis Seguier – heyrir til brönugrasaætt (Orchidaceae) og er aðeins ein tegund innan kvíslarinnar, og því er lýsing á henni látin nægja.

Tegundin P. albida skiptist í tvær undirtegundir:
P. albida ssp. albida
P. albida ssp. straminea

Aðeins seinni undirtegundin vex hér á landi. Á stundum er undirtegundin talin sjálfstæð tegund: Pseudorchis straminea (Fernald) Soó

Nafnið Pseudorchis er dregið af grísku orðunum ‘pseudes’, falskur, gervi- og ‘Orchis’, nafn á plöntum; merking nafnsins er gervi-orkídea.

Hjónagras – Pseudorchis albida (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve ssp. straminea (Fernald) Á.Löve & D.Löve

Rætur klofnar upp í gegn í sívalar greinar. Stöngull er með 3–5 blöð, efstu blöðin eru háblaðkennd og lensulaga, hin nærri lensulaga eða öfugegglaga.
Klasinn er blómþéttur. Blómin lítil og eru gul- eða gráhvít. Ytri blómhlífarblöð mynda hjálmhúfu. Vörin veit niður og er þríflipuð. Sporinn er stuttur og víður. Frá blómum leggur sæta vanilluangan.

Vex í mólendi, kjarri og margs konar gróðurlendi öðru, helst þar sem rekja er. Er víða um landið. Blómgast í júní. 8–35 cm á hæð.

Auðvelt er að aðgreina hjónagras frá friggjargrasi á vörinni, sem er þríflipuð. Að auki er blómklasinn þéttari, ekki grænleitur og blöðin eru jafnan breiðust framan við miðju.

Viðurnafnið ‘albida’ er komið af latneska orðinu ‘albus’, hvítur; ‘stramineus’, strá- (líkur, litur).
Pseudorchis straminea (Fernald) Soják, Satyrium albidum L., Orchis albida (L.) Scop., Habenaria albida (L.) R.Br., Gymnadenia albida (L.) Rich., Sieberia albida (L.) Spreng., Coeloglossum albidum (L.) Hartm., Entaticus albidus (L.) Gray, Chamorchis albida (L.) Dumort., Platanthera albida (L.) Lindl., Peristylus albidus (L.) Lindl., Leucorchis albida (L.) E. Mey., L. straminea (Fernald) Soó, Bicchia albida (L.) Parl.
Nöfn á erlendum málum:
Enska: white mountain orchid, small white orchid, small-white orchid
Danska: Sækspore
Norska: lavlandshvitkurle
Sænska: vityxne, klubbsporre, fjällyxne, fjellkvitkurle, fjällvityxne, (ssp. straminea)
Finnska: Ahovalkokämmekkä
Þýzka: Weiße Höswurz
Franska: orchis miel
ÁHB ( 3. júlí 2014

P.s. Höfundur hlaut styrk frá Hagþenki 2014 til ritstarfa.

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